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Revision 1622017-05-31 - KatrinaExter

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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  For any user of PACS data, it is necessary to have some information about the AOT -- the observing mode -- of the observation they are working on in order to know which of the SPG products to work with, which pipelines to use, and which calibration or other uncertainties to consider. All the relevant AOT details are held in the header keywords of the FITS files. Every FITS file in an HSA download has a complete copy of the keywords, and hence any Level >=2 product can be opened (e.g. in fv) to find the AOT. Tables containing the description of the AOT keywords can be found in the PACS Products Explained.
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For photometry, almost all observations were of the scan-map mode and hence the same set of three maps are provided, where the key to knowing which to use is in the final chapter of the PACS Products Explained. For spectroscopy there were may more variations on the AOT: pointing mode, spectral mode, background sampling, type of mapping. In addition, the Level 2 and 2.5 products for spectroscopy are "sliced": each cube or table is for one wavelength range only, and the filenames differ only by an "s##" where more than one wavelength range was requested for that observation. This is also explained in the PACS Products Explained. In order to make it easier for an archive user to know, before having to open any FITS file, which FITS file they want, we have created a spreadsheet of AOT keyword data. In this table, you will find: the obsid; line/range spectroscopy; chop-nod or unchopped; pointed or mapping; if mapping, the raster details; the number of spectral lines or ranges requested or "sedxxx" to indicate that the observation is a full SED in the xxx band; line IDs given by the observer; and then four columns of slice number (the "s##" in the filename) and wavelength range: two columns (red and blue camera) for pointed observations where the search was done on the rebinned cube (one of the final products for this mode), and two columns (red and blue) for mapping observations where the search was done on the projected cubes (one of the final products for this mode).
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For photometry, almost all observations were of the scan-map mode and hence the same set of three maps are provided, where the key to knowing which to use is in the final chapter of the PACS Products Explained. For spectroscopy there were may more variations on the AOT: pointing mode, spectral mode, background sampling, type of mapping. In addition, the Level 2 and 2.5 products for spectroscopy are "sliced": each cube or table is for one wavelength range only, and the filenames differ only by an "s##" where more than one wavelength range was requested for that observation. This is also explained in the PACS Products Explained. In order to make it easier for an archive user to know, before having to open any FITS file, which FITS file they want, we have created a spreadsheet of AOT keyword data. In this tarball (spreadsheet/readme), you will find: the obsid; line/range spectroscopy; chop-nod or unchopped; pointed or mapping; if mapping, the raster details; the number of spectral lines or ranges requested or "sedxxx" to indicate that the observation is a full SED in the xxx band; line IDs given by the observer; and then four columns of slice number (the "s##" in the filename) and wavelength range: two columns (red and blue camera) for pointed observations where the search was done on the rebinned cube (one of the final products for this mode), and two columns (red and blue) for mapping observations where the search was done on the projected cubes (one of the final products for this mode).
  All standard observations that processed to at least Level 2 in the SPG pipeline are included in this table.
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META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="AOTMetaDataSpec.csv" attr="" comment="AOT related meta data for spec observations" date="1487335117" name="AOTMetaDataSpec.csv" path="AOTMetaDataSpec.csv" size="959304" user="KatrinaExter" version="1"
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Revision 1612017-05-11 - KatrinaExter

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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 Spectroscopy
  • Wavelength ranges, resolution, band names
    • The blue bands are B2A (blue, second order) and B2B (green, second order), and B3A (blue, third order), and in the red we have R1 (first order)
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  • Second-pass spectral ghosts: see sec. 4.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document to learn about ghosts. These are bright spectral lines at one wavelength "echoing" to another wavelength in another spaxel. This is also documented in sec. 4.9 of the PACS Observer's Manual * The footprint of the integral field unit: text and figures showing the footprint of the PACS IFU, and how that compares to the beam, can be found in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document (sec. 3) where you will also find information about the beam maps (at high spatial resolution and for various wavelengths), beam efficiencies, and the point source loss corrections. The same information can be found in the PACS Observer's Manual (sec. 4.6).
  • The FWHM of a point source (i.e. of the beam): this information can be found in fig. 4.12 of the PACS Observer's Manual and again in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document
  • Spectral line profile skews for off-centred sources: point sources that are not centrally located in a spaxel will show a skew to their spectral lines. The effect of this is to move the peak wavelength and slightly change the measured FWHM. Some calibration of this has been done and this can be found in sec. 4.7.2 and 4.7.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual and sec. 5.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document.

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META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v3_0.pdf" attr="" comment="PACS Spectrometer Performance and Calibration Document v3.0" date="1467992765" name="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v3_0.pdf" path="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v3_0.pdf" size="1603333" user="ElenaPuga" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="AOTMetaDataSpec.csv" attr="" comment="AOT related meta data for spec observations" date="1487335117" name="AOTMetaDataSpec.csv" path="AOTMetaDataSpec.csv" size="959304" user="KatrinaExter" version="1"
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Revision 1592017-04-19 - KatrinaExter

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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    • the Level 2.5 for all unchopped range scans: previously the Level 2.5 were created incorrectly
    • the Level 3 for all chop-nod pointed range scans: this is being done to have a correct "ObservationSummary" included in the observation dataset, however the data themselves will be no different as the has not changed
    • a few spectroscopy observations (1342247513, 1342246558,1342225987, 1342225145, 1342225789, 1342247790)
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  • HIPE 15 has been released. There are almost no differences in the data reduction software compared to HIPE 14.2:
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  • HIPE 15.0.1 has been released. There are almost no differences in the data reduction software compared to HIPE 14.2:
 
    • for the spectroscopy interactive pipeline scripts, one task has been added which changes the values of two meta data: centreRaDecMetaData, which sets the "ra" and "dec" meta data to the centre of the cube's field for each cube created, independently; it does not change the data or coordinates of the cubes.
    • new aperture corrections have been added to the calibration tree (photometry), for the prime and parallel modes at the 20 and 60 arcsec/s speeds; the difference in the corrections wrt previous versions (where only the 20arcsec/s corrections were provided) are negligible for apertures of 2*FWHM (of the beam) but larger for smaller apertures.
    • additional documentation has been added to the PDRG for photometry on extracting uncertainties from scan maps (chp. 4)
    • the PACS Products Explained includes information about which files to grab directly from HSA tarball downloads (rather than via HIPE), and has a new short chapter on recommendations for different science cases
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    • There are minor updates in the documentation and useful scripts between HIPE 15.0 and 15.0.1, to reflect the recommendations in the PACS Handbook and to link to since-then released documentation.
 
  • Due to a bug fixed in the 6.4.4 Unimap release within 14.2.1, the values of some Unimap parameters were modified for a small set of observations in the SPG 14.2.1 processing.
  • The forward modelling tool (FMT). This tool is to be used with PACS spectroscopy observations of objects which are extended but not flat over the observed field. It is to be used to estimate the correction to the fluxes necessary to account for the uneven illumination of the FoV by the PACS integral field unit (i.e. the gaps between the spaxels). See the Data Reduction section for more information.

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  • When starting HIPE, you will be informed if new calibration files are available. Clicking on show details will show you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs. Clicking on Install will install the latest calibration files.
  • You can inspect the release notes for the calibration sets installed on your machine from within HIPE. Open the Calibration Sets View from the menu Window -> Show Views -> Workbench.
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  • The history of the calibration files that have been released to the community is provided here: PACS Calibration File History. With the release of HIPE 15 (early 2017) and the final SPG processing of 14.2 (earlier 2017), no more changes to the calibration tree will be made.
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  • The history of the calibration files that have been released to the community is provided here: PACS Calibration File History. With the release of HIPE 15 and the final SPG processing of 14.2, no more changes to the calibration tree will be made.
 

Reducing PACS data

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  HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data.
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  • The recommended User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v15.0
  • In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 15, build 3244. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 15 here. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
  • For HIPE 15 go to the HIPE 15 what's new page. Note that no bulk processing will be done with this HIPE release and the pipeline scripts are no different to those of HIPE 14, the only difference wrt HIPE 14.2.1 are some software improvements.
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  • The recommended User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v15.0.1
  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 15.0.1 here. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
  • For HIPE 15(.0.1) go to the HIPE 15 (all tracks) what's new page. Note that no bulk processing will be done with this HIPE release and the pipeline scripts are no different to those of HIPE 14, the only difference wrt HIPE 14.2.1 are some useful scripts and documentation improvements.
 

Revision 1582017-03-28 - KatrinaExter

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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  The FMT functionality is fully incorporated in HIPE 15, however it has not yet been tested on general users, and for this reason we recommend you to contact the Herschel helpdesk to ask for advice on running the code. In exchange for some one-on-one help, we would appreciate feedback on the scripts and the documentation provided in the FMT package.
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Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

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Interactive pipeline scripts

 
  • The various interactive pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide in HIPE can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
  • The PACS Launch Pads are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. These can be gotten via HIPE itself or the links here (these are to the HIPE 15 versions, which are the same as the HIPE 14 versions)

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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        • chop nod (Telescope background normalisation): ±5% up to 150 μm, and ± 10% beyond
        • unchopped (calBlock + RSRF): ±10% for all wavelengths
  • An explanation of the data errors for any particular observation is provided in the PACS Data Reduction Guide for spectroscopy (sec. 7.6)
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  • PACS spectrometer beams: The PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies are maps of the response of each detectors on the sky. They describe the (relative) coupling of a point source to each spaxel as a function of its (the source) position in the FOV.
    • Version 6, the most up-to-date, can be directly downloaded in a tar ball PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v6.tar.gz. The corresponding calibration files are named BeamsPerSpaxelXXX, depending on the band.
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  • PACS spectrometer beams: The PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies are maps of the response of each detector on the sky. They describe the (relative) coupling of a point source to each spaxel as a function of its (the source) position in the FOV.
    • Version 6, the most up-to-date, can be directly downloaded as a tar ball PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v6.tar.gz. The calibration files are named BeamsPerSpaxelXXX, depending on the [XXX] band.
 
    • The PACS beam efficiencies are based on Neptune raster maps at certain (14) wavelengths observed during the mission:
      • Coarse 25x25 raster maps with raster step size 2.5" were obtained between ODs 174 and 751 in chopped mode covering all 25 spaxels.
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      • Fine Neptune 5x5 raster maps with raster step size 2” were executed on ODs 1311 and 1312. The combination of four such fine rasters, offset by 1", provide very high sampling for the central spaxel beam efficiency only.
      • All these measurements were registered using least squares minimization in coordinates and gain, and a synthetic beam was constructed with the coarse raster outside the area covered by fine raster and from matched fine raster inside. Finally, this synthetic beam is interpolated into a 0.5" grid.
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      • Fine Neptune 5x5 raster maps with raster step size 2” were executed on ODs 1311 and 1312. The combination of four such fine rasters, offset by 1", provide very high sampling but for the central spaxel beam efficiency only.
      • All these measurements were registered using least squares minimisation in coordinates and gain, and a synthetic beam was constructed with the coarse raster outside the area covered by fine raster and from matched fine raster inside. Finally, this synthetic beam is interpolated into a 0.5" grid.
 
      • All raster maps were observed with only one chop -off position (aka, asymmetric chopNod).
    • Beam efficiencies are normalised so that a point source of flux 1 at the centre of spaxel 12 has an integral of the instrument response equal to 1.
    • The WCS associated with the beam is in sky coordinates for position angle 0.
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    • A full history of the PACS Spectrometer beam efficiencies versions can be found in PACSSBeamEfficienciesControlVersion.pdf
    • The raw data from which the PACS spectrometer beams (all versions) have been derived is also available as tables (y, z offset - signal):
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    • A full history of the PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies versions can be found in PACSSBeamEfficienciesControlVersion.pdf
    • The raw data from which the PACS spectrometer beams (all versions) were derived are also available as tables (y, z offset - signal):
 
      • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz:This contains a FITS file for each wavelength measured for the central spaxel only. Raw data of the coarse and fine rasters are combined. The array dimension of the fits file is [3,npoints] where the first column gives the y raster position, the 2nd column the z raster position and the 3rd column the normalised flux measured at this raster position.
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      • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_tables_v1.tar.gz: Raw measurements PACS beams - all spaxels, coarse raster measurements only: each fits files corresponds to one wavelength. Each file contains the data for all spaxels of the coarse raster measurement only. Each fits file holds an array of 3x25x25x25 where: (0,25,25,25)=y raster position, (1,25,25,25)=z raster position, (2,25,25,25)=flux normalized to the central spaxel. The second and third dimensions are the raster position indices (y and z) and the last dimension is the module number (=spaxel number).
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      • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_tables_v1.tar.gz: Raw measurements PACS beams - all spaxels, coarse raster measurements only: each fits files corresponds to one wavelength. Each file contains the data for all spaxels of the coarse raster measurement only. Each fits file holds an array of 3x25x25x25 where: (0,25,25,25)=y raster position, (1,25,25,25)=z raster position, (2,25,25,25)=flux normalised to the central spaxel. The second and third dimensions are the raster position indices (y and z) and the last dimension is the module number (=spaxel number).
 

PACS calibration file versions

  • When starting HIPE, you will be informed if new calibration files are available. Clicking on show details will show you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs. Clicking on Install will install the latest calibration files.
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Standard Products

The Herschel Science Archive provides bulk-processed Level 2/2.5 products for photometry and spectroscopy.

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  • All observations will be processed to Level 2. The pointed chop-nod observations for which the full SED is covered by 2 (or more) observations will also have a Level 3 (see for a list of these observations). The unchopped range scan on-source observations for which an off-source observation was requested will have a Level 2.5 that contains the background-subtracted results (see for a list of these observations, and the associated off-source obsid for any on-source obsid is given in the comments in the qualitySummary).
  • For some observations, one of the cameras (red or blue) may not have processed all the way to the final level due to data being out of the filter band borders: this is normal and a comment in the qualitySummary should say exactly that. Some observations will have failed in one camera but not another due to instrumental anomalies: again, a comment in the qualitySummary will explain what has happened.
 
  • This Data Processing Known Issues page describes typical problems and caveats the observer needs to be familiar when looking at the results of this "SPG" (standard product generation) processing. Aspects of product quality which can be further optimised by interactive processing are also summarised here. The document refers to the version of data processing pipeline currently being used for processing of incoming Herschel data.
  • For a explanation of PACS products, i.e. what you get when you download a complete or part of an observation from the HSA, see the Info PACS Products Explained, which can also be found on the HIPE help pages.
  • PACS data are reduced with pipeline scripts which are a set of command-line tasks that process the data from Level 0 (raw) to Level 2/2.5 (science-ready). There is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target, AOT, and observing plan. These 'interactive' pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.

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  • PACS data are reduced with pipeline scripts which are a set of command-line tasks that process the data from Level 0 (raw) to Level 2/2.5 (science-ready). There is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target, AOT, and observing plan. These 'interactive' pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.
  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the 'SPG' (Standard Product Generator) using one pipeline script flavour per AOT. Which script is used is documented in the PDRG.
  • The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks within those scripts, with task settings that correspond to the most common type of science target for each AOT. But some pipeline tasks still can only be run via the interactive pipeline scripts, and to modify the parameter settings for the important pipeline tasks also requires you re-process the data. The Launch Pads (see below) include a guide to understanding the pipeline scripts and how to decide whether to reprocess your data and if so, with which script.
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AOT table for PACS spectroscopy

For any user of PACS data, it is necessary to have some information about the AOT -- the observing mode -- of the observation they are working on in order to know which of the SPG products to work with, which pipelines to use, and which calibration or other uncertainties to consider. All the relevant AOT details are held in the header keywords of the FITS files. Every FITS file in an HSA download has a complete copy of the keywords, and hence any Level >=2 product can be opened (e.g. in fv) to find the AOT. Tables containing the description of the AOT keywords can be found in the PACS Products Explained.

For photometry, almost all observations were of the scan-map mode and hence the same set of three maps are provided, where the key to knowing which to use is in the final chapter of the PACS Products Explained. For spectroscopy there were may more variations on the AOT: pointing mode, spectral mode, background sampling, type of mapping. In addition, the Level 2 and 2.5 products for spectroscopy are "sliced": each cube or table is for one wavelength range only, and the filenames differ only by an "s##" where more than one wavelength range was requested for that observation. This is also explained in the PACS Products Explained. In order to make it easier for an archive user to know, before having to open any FITS file, which FITS file they want, we have created a spreadsheet of AOT keyword data. In this table, you will find: the obsid; line/range spectroscopy; chop-nod or unchopped; pointed or mapping; if mapping, the raster details; the number of spectral lines or ranges requested or "sedxxx" to indicate that the observation is a full SED in the xxx band; line IDs given by the observer; and then four columns of slice number (the "s##" in the filename) and wavelength range: two columns (red and blue camera) for pointed observations where the search was done on the rebinned cube (one of the final products for this mode), and two columns (red and blue) for mapping observations where the search was done on the projected cubes (one of the final products for this mode).

All standard observations that processed to at least Level 2 in the SPG pipeline are included in this table.

 

Data reduction: HIPE, documentation, and useful links for data issues

HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data.

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Revision 1552017-02-02 - ElenaPuga

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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  HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data.
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  • The recommended User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v14.2.1
  • In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 14, build 3597. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 14 here. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
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  • The recommended User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v15.0
  • In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 15, build 3244. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 15 here. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
 
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<
<
  • The what's new in HIPE 14 page lists the changes in HIPE version 14.2.1 with respect to the 14.x releases, and provides a detailed list of updated functionalities, product changes, and calibration aspects. For HIPE 15 go to the HIPE 15 what's new page. Note that no bulk processing will be done with this HIPE release and the pipeline scripts are no different to those of HIPE 14, the only difference wrt HIPE 14.2.1 are some software improvements.
>
>
  • For HIPE 15 go to the HIPE 15 what's new page. Note that no bulk processing will be done with this HIPE release and the pipeline scripts are no different to those of HIPE 14, the only difference wrt HIPE 14.2.1 are some software improvements.
 
Line: 143 to 143
  The FMT has been developed in HIPE 15 to estimate the degree to which the fluxes are incorrect for any observation. As this differs for each observation -- it depends on the surface brightness distribution of the source and the pointing pattern of the observation (pointed, Nyquist mapping, oversampled mapping, tiling...) -- the correction is unique to each observation. To use the FMT it will be necessary to run HIPE. The most important input is a model of the surface brightness distribution of your source at the wavelength(s) of the observation. With this input, the surface brightness distribution that would have been observed with a completely uniform illumination is estimated by running the pipeline on the model. This output can be compared to your data.
Changed:
<
<
The FMT is fully incorporated in HIPE 15, however it has not yet been tested on general users, and for this reason we recommend you to contact the Herschel helpdesk to ask for advice on running the code. In exchange for some one-on-one help, we would appreciate feedback on the scripts and the documentation provided in the FMT package.
>
>
The FMT functionality is fully incorporated in HIPE 15, however it has not yet been tested on general users, and for this reason we recommend you to contact the Herschel helpdesk to ask for advice on running the code. In exchange for some one-on-one help, we would appreciate feedback on the scripts and the documentation provided in the FMT package.
 

Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The various interactive pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide in HIPE can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.

Revision 1542017-02-02 - DavidTeyssier

Line: 1 to 1
 
META TOPICPARENT name="WebHome"

PACS instrument and calibration web pages

Line: 12 to 12
  NEW NEW NEW Latest and Coming Updates (10-Jan-2017)
Changed:
<
<
  • HIPE 14.2.1 has been released
  • Due to a bug fixed in the 6.4.4 Unimap release within 14.2.1, the values of some Unimap parameters were modified for a small set of observations in the SPG 14.2.1 processing.
  • SPG 14.2.2 products will soon run. This will be the final bulk processing of PACS data, however only a subset of PACS spectroscopy observations need to be processed with 14.2.2 to correct errors in the previous processing:
>
>
  • SPG 14.2.2 products have been generated. This was the final bulk processing of PACS data, fixing the following issues with the previous version:
 
    • the Level 2.5 for all unchopped range scans: previously the Level 2.5 were created incorrectly
    • the Level 3 for all chop-nod pointed range scans: this is being done to have a correct "ObservationSummary" included in the observation dataset, however the data themselves will be no different as the has not changed
    • a few spectroscopy observations (1342247513, 1342246558,1342225987, 1342225145, 1342225789, 1342247790)
Changed:
<
<
  • HIPE 15 will soon be released. There are almost no differences in the data reduction software compared to HIPE 14.2:
>
>
  • HIPE 15 has been released. There are almost no differences in the data reduction software compared to HIPE 14.2:
 
    • for the spectroscopy interactive pipeline scripts, one task has been added which changes the values of two meta data: centreRaDecMetaData, which sets the "ra" and "dec" meta data to the centre of the cube's field for each cube created, independently; it does not change the data or coordinates of the cubes.
    • new aperture corrections have been added to the calibration tree (photometry), for the prime and parallel modes at the 20 and 60 arcsec/s speeds; the difference in the corrections wrt previous versions (where only the 20arcsec/s corrections were provided) are negligible for apertures of 2*FWHM (of the beam) but larger for smaller apertures.
    • additional documentation has been added to the PDRG for photometry on extracting uncertainties from scan maps (chp. 4)
    • the PACS Products Explained includes information about which files to grab directly from HSA tarball downloads (rather than via HIPE), and has a new short chapter on recommendations for different science cases
Added:
>
>
  • Due to a bug fixed in the 6.4.4 Unimap release within 14.2.1, the values of some Unimap parameters were modified for a small set of observations in the SPG 14.2.1 processing.
 
  • The forward modelling tool (FMT). This tool is to be used with PACS spectroscopy observations of objects which are extended but not flat over the observed field. It is to be used to estimate the correction to the fluxes necessary to account for the uneven illumination of the FoV by the PACS integral field unit (i.e. the gaps between the spaxels). See the Data Reduction section for more information.

Observing with PACS

Revision 1532017-01-19 - KatrinaExter

Line: 1 to 1
 
META TOPICPARENT name="WebHome"

PACS instrument and calibration web pages

Line: 20 to 20
 
    • a few spectroscopy observations (1342247513, 1342246558,1342225987, 1342225145, 1342225789, 1342247790)
  • HIPE 15 will soon be released. There are almost no differences in the data reduction software compared to HIPE 14.2:
    • for the spectroscopy interactive pipeline scripts, one task has been added which changes the values of two meta data: centreRaDecMetaData, which sets the "ra" and "dec" meta data to the centre of the cube's field for each cube created, independently; it does not change the data or coordinates of the cubes.
Changed:
<
<
    • new aperture corrections have been added to the calibration tree (photometry), for the prime and parallel modes at the 20 and 60 arcsec/s speeds; the difference in the corrections are very small
>
>
    • new aperture corrections have been added to the calibration tree (photometry), for the prime and parallel modes at the 20 and 60 arcsec/s speeds; the difference in the corrections wrt previous versions (where only the 20arcsec/s corrections were provided) are negligible for apertures of 2*FWHM (of the beam) but larger for smaller apertures.
 
    • additional documentation has been added to the PDRG for photometry on extracting uncertainties from scan maps (chp. 4)
    • the PACS Products Explained includes information about which files to grab directly from HSA tarball downloads (rather than via HIPE), and has a new short chapter on recommendations for different science cases
  • The forward modelling tool (FMT). This tool is to be used with PACS spectroscopy observations of objects which are extended but not flat over the observed field. It is to be used to estimate the correction to the fluxes necessary to account for the uneven illumination of the FoV by the PACS integral field unit (i.e. the gaps between the spaxels). See the Data Reduction section for more information.

Revision 1522017-01-11 - KatrinaExter

Line: 1 to 1
 
META TOPICPARENT name="WebHome"

PACS instrument and calibration web pages

Line: 17 to 17
 
  • SPG 14.2.2 products will soon run. This will be the final bulk processing of PACS data, however only a subset of PACS spectroscopy observations need to be processed with 14.2.2 to correct errors in the previous processing:
    • the Level 2.5 for all unchopped range scans: previously the Level 2.5 were created incorrectly
    • the Level 3 for all chop-nod pointed range scans: this is being done to have a correct "ObservationSummary" included in the observation dataset, however the data themselves will be no different as the has not changed
Changed:
<
<
    • a few isolated spectroscopy observations (1342247513, 1342246558,1342225987, 1342225145, 1342225789, 1342247790)
>
>
    • a few spectroscopy observations (1342247513, 1342246558,1342225987, 1342225145, 1342225789, 1342247790)
 
  • HIPE 15 will soon be released. There are almost no differences in the data reduction software compared to HIPE 14.2:
    • for the spectroscopy interactive pipeline scripts, one task has been added which changes the values of two meta data: centreRaDecMetaData, which sets the "ra" and "dec" meta data to the centre of the cube's field for each cube created, independently; it does not change the data or coordinates of the cubes.
Changed:
<
<
    • the calibration file dealing with the EEFs (encircled energy fractions, for photometry) has an additional set of entries
>
>
    • new aperture corrections have been added to the calibration tree (photometry), for the prime and parallel modes at the 20 and 60 arcsec/s speeds; the difference in the corrections are very small
    • additional documentation has been added to the PDRG for photometry on extracting uncertainties from scan maps (chp. 4)
    • the PACS Products Explained includes information about which files to grab directly from HSA tarball downloads (rather than via HIPE), and has a new short chapter on recommendations for different science cases
 
  • The forward modelling tool (FMT). This tool is to be used with PACS spectroscopy observations of objects which are extended but not flat over the observed field. It is to be used to estimate the correction to the fluxes necessary to account for the uneven illumination of the FoV by the PACS integral field unit (i.e. the gaps between the spaxels). See the Data Reduction section for more information.

Observing with PACS

Line: 134 to 136
 
Changed:
<
<
FMT (forward modelling tool).
>
>
NEW FMT (forward modelling tool).
 Some information about this is provided in the spectroscopy PACS Data Reduction Guide. A quick summary is:
  • the FoV of the PACS integral field unit is not uniformly illuminated, which leads to some loss of light between the spaxels
  • for point sources and flat sources this does not matter -- the corrections applied by the pipeline (the point source corrections in extractCentralSpectrum, for example, and the extended source correction applied to all observations by the pipeline) account for this

Revision 1512017-01-10 - KatrinaExter

Line: 1 to 1
 
META TOPICPARENT name="WebHome"

PACS instrument and calibration web pages

Line: 13 to 13
 NEW NEW NEW Latest and Coming Updates (10-Jan-2017)

  • HIPE 14.2.1 has been released
Changed:
<
<
  • SPG 14.2.2 products will soon be processed. Most of the PACS archive will not be reprocessed as the pipelines and calibration have not changed. Only a subset of observations require a reprocessing:
    • The Level 2.5 for all spectroscopy unchopped range scans: previously the Level 2.5 were created incorrectly
    • The Level 3 for all spectroscopy chop-nod pointed range scans: this is being done to have a correct "ObservationSummary" included in the observation dataset, however the data themselves will be no different as the processing has not changed
    • A few isolated spectroscopy observations (1342247513, 1342246558,1342225987, 1342225145, 1342225789, 1342247790)
  • Due to a bug fixed in the 6.4.4 Unimap release within 14.2.1, the values of some Unimap parameters have been modified for a small set of observations.

>
>
  • Due to a bug fixed in the 6.4.4 Unimap release within 14.2.1, the values of some Unimap parameters were modified for a small set of observations in the SPG 14.2.1 processing.
  • SPG 14.2.2 products will soon run. This will be the final bulk processing of PACS data, however only a subset of PACS spectroscopy observations need to be processed with 14.2.2 to correct errors in the previous processing:
    • the Level 2.5 for all unchopped range scans: previously the Level 2.5 were created incorrectly
    • the Level 3 for all chop-nod pointed range scans: this is being done to have a correct "ObservationSummary" included in the observation dataset, however the data themselves will be no different as the has not changed
    • a few isolated spectroscopy observations (1342247513, 1342246558,1342225987, 1342225145, 1342225789, 1342247790)
  • HIPE 15 will soon be released. There are almost no differences in the data reduction software compared to HIPE 14.2:
    • for the spectroscopy interactive pipeline scripts, one task has been added which changes the values of two meta data: centreRaDecMetaData, which sets the "ra" and "dec" meta data to the centre of the cube's field for each cube created, independently; it does not change the data or coordinates of the cubes.
    • the calibration file dealing with the EEFs (encircled energy fractions, for photometry) has an additional set of entries
  • The forward modelling tool (FMT). This tool is to be used with PACS spectroscopy observations of objects which are extended but not flat over the observed field. It is to be used to estimate the correction to the fluxes necessary to account for the uneven illumination of the FoV by the PACS integral field unit (i.e. the gaps between the spaxels). See the Data Reduction section for more information.

 

Observing with PACS

Line: 105 to 109
 
  • When starting HIPE, you will be informed if new calibration files are available. Clicking on show details will show you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs. Clicking on Install will install the latest calibration files.
  • You can inspect the release notes for the calibration sets installed on your machine from within HIPE. Open the Calibration Sets View from the menu Window -> Show Views -> Workbench.
Changed:
<
<
>
>
  • The history of the calibration files that have been released to the community is provided here: PACS Calibration File History. With the release of HIPE 15 (early 2017) and the final SPG processing of 14.2 (earlier 2017), no more changes to the calibration tree will be made.
 

Reducing PACS data

Line: 130 to 134
 
Added:
>
>
FMT (forward modelling tool). Some information about this is provided in the spectroscopy PACS Data Reduction Guide. A quick summary is:
  • the FoV of the PACS integral field unit is not uniformly illuminated, which leads to some loss of light between the spaxels
  • for point sources and flat sources this does not matter -- the corrections applied by the pipeline (the point source corrections in extractCentralSpectrum, for example, and the extended source correction applied to all observations by the pipeline) account for this
  • for sources that are between a point and fully extended, for crowded fields, and for off-centred point sources, however, the fluxes in the final cubes of the pipeline will be incorrect

The FMT has been developed in HIPE 15 to estimate the degree to which the fluxes are incorrect for any observation. As this differs for each observation -- it depends on the surface brightness distribution of the source and the pointing pattern of the observation (pointed, Nyquist mapping, oversampled mapping, tiling...) -- the correction is unique to each observation. To use the FMT it will be necessary to run HIPE. The most important input is a model of the surface brightness distribution of your source at the wavelength(s) of the observation. With this input, the surface brightness distribution that would have been observed with a completely uniform illumination is estimated by running the pipeline on the model. This output can be compared to your data.

The FMT is fully incorporated in HIPE 15, however it has not yet been tested on general users, and for this reason we recommend you to contact the Herschel helpdesk to ask for advice on running the code. In exchange for some one-on-one help, we would appreciate feedback on the scripts and the documentation provided in the FMT package.

 

Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The various interactive pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide in HIPE can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
  • The PACS Launch Pads are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. These can be gotten via HIPE itself or the links here (these are to the HIPE 15 versions, which are the same as the HIPE 14 versions)

Revision 1502017-01-10 - KatrinaExter

Line: 1 to 1
 
META TOPICPARENT name="WebHome"

PACS instrument and calibration web pages

Line: 10 to 10
  You can also consult the PACS NHSC homepage.
Changed:
<
<
NEW NEW NEW Latest Updates (10-Jan-2017)
>
>
NEW NEW NEW Latest and Coming Updates (10-Jan-2017)
 
  • HIPE 14.2.1 has been released
Changed:
<
<
  • SPG 14.2.2 products are being processed. This will include a subset of spectroscopy observations only:
    • The Level 2.5 for all unchopped range scans: previously the Level 2.5 were created incorrectly
    • The Level 3 for all chop-nod pointed range scans: this is being done to have a correct "ObservationSummary" included in the observation dataset, however the data themselves will be no different as the processing has not changed
>
>
  • SPG 14.2.2 products will soon be processed. Most of the PACS archive will not be reprocessed as the pipelines and calibration have not changed. Only a subset of observations require a reprocessing:
    • The Level 2.5 for all spectroscopy unchopped range scans: previously the Level 2.5 were created incorrectly
    • The Level 3 for all spectroscopy chop-nod pointed range scans: this is being done to have a correct "ObservationSummary" included in the observation dataset, however the data themselves will be no different as the processing has not changed
 
    • A few isolated spectroscopy observations (1342247513, 1342246558,1342225987, 1342225145, 1342225789, 1342247790)
  • Due to a bug fixed in the 6.4.4 Unimap release within 14.2.1, the values of some Unimap parameters have been modified for a small set of observations.

Revision 1492017-01-09 - KatrinaExter

Line: 1 to 1
 
META TOPICPARENT name="WebHome"

PACS instrument and calibration web pages

Line: 10 to 10
  You can also consult the PACS NHSC homepage.
Changed:
<
<
NEW NEW NEW Latest Updates (19-October-2016)
>
>
NEW NEW NEW Latest Updates (10-Jan-2017)
 
Changed:
<
<
  • HIPE 14.2.1 has been released.
  • Spectrometer Level 3 products have been reprocessed and are now properly concatenated including all corresponding obsids.
>
>
  • HIPE 14.2.1 has been released
  • SPG 14.2.2 products are being processed. This will include a subset of spectroscopy observations only:
    • The Level 2.5 for all unchopped range scans: previously the Level 2.5 were created incorrectly
    • The Level 3 for all chop-nod pointed range scans: this is being done to have a correct "ObservationSummary" included in the observation dataset, however the data themselves will be no different as the processing has not changed
    • A few isolated spectroscopy observations (1342247513, 1342246558,1342225987, 1342225145, 1342225789, 1342247790)
 
  • Due to a bug fixed in the 6.4.4 Unimap release within 14.2.1, the values of some Unimap parameters have been modified for a small set of observations.

Added:
>
>
 

Observing with PACS

The relevant documentation to read before working on PACS data for the first time are the following:

Line: 120 to 124
 
  • The recommended User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v14.2.1
  • In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 14, build 3597. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 14 here. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
Changed:
<
<
>
>
 

Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The various interactive pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide in HIPE can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
Changed:
<
<
  • The PACS Launch Pads are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. From HIPE 14.2.1:
>
>
  • The PACS Launch Pads are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. These can be gotten via HIPE itself or the links here (these are to the HIPE 15 versions, which are the same as the HIPE 14 versions)
 

Revision 1482016-12-19 - KatrinaExter

Line: 1 to 1
 
META TOPICPARENT name="WebHome"

PACS instrument and calibration web pages

Line: 109 to 109
  The Herschel Science Archive provides bulk-processed Level 2/2.5 products for photometry and spectroscopy.
  • This Data Processing Known Issues page describes typical problems and caveats the observer needs to be familiar when looking at the results of this "SPG" (standard product generation) processing. Aspects of product quality which can be further optimised by interactive processing are also summarised here. The document refers to the version of data processing pipeline currently being used for processing of incoming Herschel data.
Changed:
<
<
  • For a explanation of PACS products, i.e. what you get when you download a complete or part of an observation from the HSA, see the Info PACS Products Explained, which can also be found on the HIPE help pages.
>
>
  • For a explanation of PACS products, i.e. what you get when you download a complete or part of an observation from the HSA, see the Info PACS Products Explained, which can also be found on the HIPE help pages.
 
  • PACS data are reduced with pipeline scripts which are a set of command-line tasks that process the data from Level 0 (raw) to Level 2/2.5 (science-ready). There is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target, AOT, and observing plan. These 'interactive' pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.
  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the 'SPG' (Standard Product Generator) using one pipeline script flavour per AOT. Which script is used is documented in the PDRG.
  • The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks within those scripts, with task settings that correspond to the most common type of science target for each AOT. But some pipeline tasks still can only be run via the interactive pipeline scripts, and to modify the parameter settings for the important pipeline tasks also requires you re-process the data. The Launch Pads (see below) include a guide to understanding the pipeline scripts and how to decide whether to reprocess your data and if so, with which script.
Line: 120 to 120
 
  • The recommended User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v14.2.1
  • In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 14, build 3597. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 14 here. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
Changed:
<
<
>
>
 
  • The what's new in HIPE 14 page lists the changes in HIPE version 14.2.1 with respect to the 14.x releases, and provides a detailed list of updated functionalities, product changes, and calibration aspects.
  • The Data products known issues page details issues about the pipelines or the data products that are known about and offers advice for dealing with them. Consult this if you encounter problems with your data to see if it has already been addressed.
  • Link to the General HCSS Public Twiki page (with general framework information and updates): http://herschel.esac.esa.int/twiki/bin/view/Public/WebHome
Line: 129 to 129
 

Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The various interactive pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide in HIPE can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
  • The PACS Launch Pads are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. From HIPE 14.2.1:
Changed:
<
<
>
>
 
    • There we also include:
      • why we recommend you do re-pipeline your data
      • what you need to pay attention to for different types of astronomical source
Line: 240 to 240
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="LPphot_HIPE14p2.pdf" attr="" comment="launch pads for 14.2" date="1467973785" name="LPphot_HIPE14p2.pdf" path="LPphot_HIPE14p2.pdf" size="130156" user="KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="LPspec_HIPE14p2.pdf" attr="" comment="launch pads for 14.2" date="1467973785" name="LPspec_HIPE14p2.pdf" path="LPspec_HIPE14p2.pdf" size="218939" user="KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v3_0.pdf" attr="" comment="PACS Spectrometer Performance and Calibration Document v3.0" date="1467992765" name="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v3_0.pdf" path="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v3_0.pdf" size="1603333" user="ElenaPuga" version="1"
Added:
>
>
META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="pacs_phot15.pdf" attr="" comment="" date="1482151495" name="pacs_phot15.pdf" path="pacs_phot15.pdf" size="5959994" user="KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="pacs_spec15.pdf" attr="" comment="" date="1482151495" name="pacs_spec15.pdf" path="pacs_spec15.pdf" size="2511138" user="KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="pacs_ppe15.pdf" attr="" comment="" date="1482151534" name="pacs_ppe15.pdf" path="pacs_ppe15.pdf" size="1386735" user="KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="pacs_spec_LP15.pdf" attr="" comment="" date="1482151716" name="pacs_spec_LP15.pdf" path="pacs_spec_LP15.pdf" size="263867" user="KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="pacs_phot_LP15.pdf" attr="" comment="" date="1482151716" name="pacs_phot_LP15.pdf" path="pacs_phot_LP15.pdf" size="143922" user="KatrinaExter" version="1"

Revision 1472016-10-19 - ElenaPuga

Line: 1 to 1
 
META TOPICPARENT name="WebHome"

PACS instrument and calibration web pages

Line: 10 to 10
  You can also consult the PACS NHSC homepage.
Changed:
<
<
NEW NEW NEW Latest Updates (9-August-2016)

  • HIPE 14.2 has been released
  • PACS instrument data with HIPE 14.2 version bulk reprocessing has started (Note last bulk of PACS data was performed with 14.0.1)
  • Check calibration updates and improvements
  • Warning for pointing anomaly in HIPE/SPG 13/14: several PACS and SPIRE photometry observations reported are affected by a known problem related to the reset of the Spacecraft Velocity Vector (SVV) during the upload of the star-tracker's defective pixel table. For the affected observations, the pointing of the telescope can be off along the scan direction, and shifted up to 20 arcsec up to 14.0.1
>
>
NEW NEW NEW Latest Updates (19-October-2016)
 
Added:
>
>
  • HIPE 14.2.1 has been released.
  • Spectrometer Level 3 products have been reprocessed and are now properly concatenated including all corresponding obsids.
  • Due to a bug fixed in the 6.4.4 Unimap release within 14.2.1, the values of some Unimap parameters have been modified for a small set of observations.

 

Observing with PACS

The relevant documentation to read before working on PACS data for the first time are the following:

Line: 119 to 117
  HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data.
Changed:
<
<
  • The recommended User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v14.2
>
>
  • The recommended User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v14.2.1
 
  • In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 14, build 3597. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 14 here. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
Changed:
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  • The what's new in HIPE 14 page lists the changes in HIPE version 14.2 with respect to the 14.0, and provides a detailed list of updated functionalities, product changes, and calibration aspects.
  • The Data products known issues page details issues about the pipelines or the data products that are known about and offers advice for dealing with them. Consult this if you encounter problems with your data to see if it has already been addressed.
>
>
  • The what's new in HIPE 14 page lists the changes in HIPE version 14.2.1 with respect to the 14.x releases, and provides a detailed list of updated functionalities, product changes, and calibration aspects.
  • The Data products known issues page details issues about the pipelines or the data products that are known about and offers advice for dealing with them. Consult this if you encounter problems with your data to see if it has already been addressed.
 

Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The various interactive pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide in HIPE can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
Changed:
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  • The PACS Launch Pads are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. From HIPE 14.2:
>
>
  • The PACS Launch Pads are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. From HIPE 14.2.1:
 

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  You can also consult the PACS NHSC homepage.
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NEW NEW NEW Latest Updates (11-July-2016)
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NEW NEW NEW Latest Updates (9-August-2016)
 
Changed:
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  • HIPE 14.2 will be released inminently
  • PACS instrument data with HIPE 14.2 version will be part of an upcoming bulk reprocessing (Note last bulk of PACS data was performed with 14.0.1)
>
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  • HIPE 14.2 has been released
  • PACS instrument data with HIPE 14.2 version bulk reprocessing has started (Note last bulk of PACS data was performed with 14.0.1)
 
  • Check calibration updates and improvements
  • Warning for pointing anomaly in HIPE/SPG 13/14: several PACS and SPIRE photometry observations reported are affected by a known problem related to the reset of the Spacecraft Velocity Vector (SVV) during the upload of the star-tracker's defective pixel table. For the affected observations, the pointing of the telescope can be off along the scan direction, and shifted up to 20 arcsec up to 14.0.1
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 HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data.

  • The recommended User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v14.2
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  • In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 14, build 3595. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
>
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  • In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 14, build 3597. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
 

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 Although we are now in the post-operations phase of the mission, the PACS OM and the AOT release notes can still be useful to read for a background understanding on how PACS data were gathered.
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The in-flight scientific capabilities of the PACS instrument are also given in the publication:
 

PACS calibration and performance

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  NEW NEW NEW Latest Updates (11-July-2016)
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  • HIPE 14.2 has been released
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  • HIPE 14.2 will be released inminently
 
  • PACS instrument data with HIPE 14.2 version will be part of an upcoming bulk reprocessing (Note last bulk of PACS data was performed with 14.0.1)
  • Check calibration updates and improvements
  • Warning for pointing anomaly in HIPE/SPG 13/14: several PACS and SPIRE photometry observations reported are affected by a known problem related to the reset of the Spacecraft Velocity Vector (SVV) during the upload of the star-tracker's defective pixel table. For the affected observations, the pointing of the telescope can be off along the scan direction, and shifted up to 20 arcsec up to 14.0.1

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 Spectroscopy
  • Wavelength ranges, resolution, band names
    • The blue bands are B2A (blue, second order) and B2B (green, second order), and B3A (blue, third order), and in the red we have R1 (first order)
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  • Second-pass spectral ghosts: see sec. 4.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document to learn about ghosts. These are bright spectral lines at one wavelength "echoing" to another wavelength in another spaxel. This is also documented in sec. 4.9 of the PACS Observer's Manual * The footprint of the integral field unit: text and figures showing the footprint of the PACS IFU, and how that compares to the beam, can be found in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document (sec. 3) where you will also find information about the beam maps (at high spatial resolution and for various wavelengths), beam efficiencies, and the point source loss corrections. The same information can be found in the PACS Observer's Manual (sec. 4.6).
  • The FWHM of a point source (i.e. of the beam): this information can be found in fig. 4.12 of the PACS Observer's Manual and again in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document
  • Spectral line profile skews for off-centred sources: point sources that are not centrally located in a spaxel will show a skew to their spectral lines. The effect of this is to move the peak wavelength and slightly change the measured FWHM. Some calibration of this has been done and this can be found in sec. 4.7.2 and 4.7.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual and sec. 5.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document.
  • Calibration certainties: these are all documented in the beginning of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document. Data errors are discussed in the PACS DRG for spectroscopy (sec. 7.6).
>
>
  • Second-pass spectral ghosts: see sec. 4.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document to learn about ghosts. These are bright spectral lines at one wavelength "echoing" to another wavelength in another spaxel. This is also documented in sec. 4.9 of the PACS Observer's Manual * The footprint of the integral field unit: text and figures showing the footprint of the PACS IFU, and how that compares to the beam, can be found in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document (sec. 3) where you will also find information about the beam maps (at high spatial resolution and for various wavelengths), beam efficiencies, and the point source loss corrections. The same information can be found in the PACS Observer's Manual (sec. 4.6).
  • The FWHM of a point source (i.e. of the beam): this information can be found in fig. 4.12 of the PACS Observer's Manual and again in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document
  • Spectral line profile skews for off-centred sources: point sources that are not centrally located in a spaxel will show a skew to their spectral lines. The effect of this is to move the peak wavelength and slightly change the measured FWHM. Some calibration of this has been done and this can be found in sec. 4.7.2 and 4.7.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual and sec. 5.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document.
  • Calibration certainties: these are all documented in the beginning of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document. Data errors are discussed in the PACS DRG for spectroscopy (sec. 7.6).
 
  • Expected signal-to-noise ratios and line sensitivity: this depends on the AOT, this information is also provided in the AOT Release Notes (see also update in sec. 6.1.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual) and can also be computed by running HSPOT.

Photometry

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  You can also consult the PACS NHSC homepage.
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Temporary notes

>
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NEW NEW NEW Latest Updates (11-July-2016)

  • HIPE 14.2 has been released
  • PACS instrument data with HIPE 14.2 version will be part of an upcoming bulk reprocessing (Note last bulk of PACS data was performed with 14.0.1)
  • Check calibration updates and improvements
  • Warning for pointing anomaly in HIPE/SPG 13/14: several PACS and SPIRE photometry observations reported are affected by a known problem related to the reset of the Spacecraft Velocity Vector (SVV) during the upload of the star-tracker's defective pixel table. For the affected observations, the pointing of the telescope can be off along the scan direction, and shifted up to 20 arcsec up to 14.0.1
 

Observing with PACS

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PACS spectrometer calibration

  • The PACS Spectrometer pipeline science-ready data (Level2/Level2.5) are calibrated for extended emission.
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  • The calibration of the spectrometer is based on repeated measurements of planets, asteroids, and stars. The RMS scatter of these measurements are just over 10% within any spectral band, about the same when comparing different spaxels, and similar (but higher in the red) when looking for broad-band features within any band. See the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document for the exact numbers. These calibration certainties are independent, and should be combined when quoting calibration errors.
>
>
  • The calibration of the spectrometer is based on repeated measurements of planets, asteroids, and stars.
 
    • Telescope background model for chop nod: a script to compute the telescope background model calibration tables and a technical note explaining the method used can be found here. Warning: the calibration tables computed with this script are not the same as the ones in the calibration tree. See the technical note for details.
  • Point source observations. To extract and calibrate the spectrum of a point source, it is necessary to use one of the tasks provided: it is not enough to add up the field-of-view of use the central spaxel only. How to do this is documented in the PACS DRG for spectroscopy.
Changed:
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  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations. (Please note, this document refers to the calibration status and performance of pipeline version v8.0. An update compatible with HIPE v14 release will be provided soon.) This includes:
    • flux calibration accuracies for chop nod and unchopped observations
    • the beam efficiencies and the PACS integral field footprint
    • spectral leakages and ghosts
    • wavelength calibration, including information on a skew our native line profile develops as a point source moves off the centre of a spaxel
    • table of the point source correction factors for different wavelengths
>
>
  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: NEW The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v3.0 (7-July-2016) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations.
    • Info Calibration accuracies:
      • The absolute flux error of >100 measurements of different calibration sources is ±6-12% in all bands, with a systematic error below ±1%. Continuum flux reproducibility from observations on HD 161796 is estimated at ±15% (peak-to-peak).
      • Relative flux accuracies within a PACS-S spectral band are:
        • chop nod (Telescope background normalisation): ±5% up to 150 μm, and ± 10% beyond
        • unchopped (calBlock + RSRF): ±10% for all wavelengths
 
  • An explanation of the data errors for any particular observation is provided in the PACS Data Reduction Guide for spectroscopy (sec. 7.6)
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  • PACS spectrometer beams: The PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies are maps of the response of each detectors on the sky. They describe the (relative) coupling of a point source to each spaxel as a function of its (the source) position in the FOV.
>
>
  • PACS spectrometer beams: The PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies are maps of the response of each detectors on the sky. They describe the (relative) coupling of a point source to each spaxel as a function of its (the source) position in the FOV.
 
    • Version 6, the most up-to-date, can be directly downloaded in a tar ball PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v6.tar.gz. The corresponding calibration files are named BeamsPerSpaxelXXX, depending on the band.
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    • The PACS beam efficiencies are based on Neptune raster maps at certain (14) wavelengths observed during the mission:
      • Coarse 25x25 raster maps with raster step size 2.5" were obtained between ODs 174 and 751 in chopped mode covering all 25 spaxels.
      • Fine Neptune 5x5 raster maps with raster step size 2” were executed on ODs 1311 and 1312. The combination of four such fine rasters, offset by 1", provide very high sampling for the central spaxel beam efficiency only.
      • All these measurements were registered using least squares minimization in coordinates and gain, and a synthetic beam was constructed with the coarse raster outside the area covered by fine raster and from matched fine raster inside. Finally, this synthetic beam is interpolated into a 0.5" grid.
      • All raster maps were observed with only one chop -off position (aka, asymmetric chopNod).
    • Beam efficiencies are normalised so that a point source of flux 1 at the centre of spaxel 12 has an integral of the instrument response equal to 1.
Changed:
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    • The WCS associated with the beam is in sky coordinates for position angle 0.
>
>
    • The WCS associated with the beam is in sky coordinates for position angle 0.
 
    • A full history of the PACS Spectrometer beam efficiencies versions can be found in PACSSBeamEfficienciesControlVersion.pdf
    • The raw data from which the PACS spectrometer beams (all versions) have been derived is also available as tables (y, z offset - signal):
      • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz:This contains a FITS file for each wavelength measured for the central spaxel only. Raw data of the coarse and fine rasters are combined. The array dimension of the fits file is [3,npoints] where the first column gives the y raster position, the 2nd column the z raster position and the 3rd column the normalised flux measured at this raster position.
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  The Herschel Science Archive provides bulk-processed Level 2/2.5 products for photometry and spectroscopy.
  • This Data Processing Known Issues page describes typical problems and caveats the observer needs to be familiar when looking at the results of this "SPG" (standard product generation) processing. Aspects of product quality which can be further optimised by interactive processing are also summarised here. The document refers to the version of data processing pipeline currently being used for processing of incoming Herschel data.
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  • For a explanation of PACS products, i.e. what you get when you download a complete or part of an observation from the HSA, see the PACS Products Explained, which can also be found on the HIPE help pages.
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  • For a explanation of PACS products, i.e. what you get when you download a complete or part of an observation from the HSA, see the Info PACS Products Explained, which can also be found on the HIPE help pages.
 
  • PACS data are reduced with pipeline scripts which are a set of command-line tasks that process the data from Level 0 (raw) to Level 2/2.5 (science-ready). There is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target, AOT, and observing plan. These 'interactive' pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.
  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the 'SPG' (Standard Product Generator) using one pipeline script flavour per AOT. Which script is used is documented in the PDRG.
  • The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks within those scripts, with task settings that correspond to the most common type of science target for each AOT. But some pipeline tasks still can only be run via the interactive pipeline scripts, and to modify the parameter settings for the important pipeline tasks also requires you re-process the data. The Launch Pads (see below) include a guide to understanding the pipeline scripts and how to decide whether to reprocess your data and if so, with which script.
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  • The recommended User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v14.2
  • In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 14, build 3595. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 14 here. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
Changed:
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>
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  • The what's new in HIPE 14 page lists the changes in HIPE version 14.2 with respect to the 14.0, and provides a detailed list of updated functionalities, product changes, and calibration aspects.
  • The Data products known issues page details issues about the pipelines or the data products that are known about and offers advice for dealing with them. Consult this if you encounter problems with your data to see if it has already been addressed.
  • Link to the General HCSS Public Twiki page (with general framework information and updates): http://herschel.esac.esa.int/twiki/bin/view/Public/WebHome
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Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The various interactive pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide in HIPE can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
  • The PACS Launch Pads are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. From HIPE 14.2:
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    • There we also include:
      • why we recommend you do re-pipeline your data
      • what you need to pay attention to for different types of astronomical source
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  • Calibration certainty: is discussed on this page in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps', with links there to two publications. You can also read sec 3.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual
  • Sensitivity: this depends on the AOT, this information is also provided in the AOT Release Notes, and can also be computed by running HSPOT.
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS Products Explained document (pdf)" date="1435065463" name="ppe-hipe13.pdf" path="ppe-hipe13.pdf" size="831421" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Raw measurements PACS beams - central spaxel only" date="1362764493" name="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz" path="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz" size="123836" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Mueller exp. astr. paper 2013" date="1383609091" name="ExpAstr_PrimeAsteroids_revision1.pdf" path="ExpAstr_PrimeAsteroids_revision1.pdf" size="950563" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="LPphot_HIPE14p2.pdf" attr="" comment="launch pads for 14.2" date="1467973785" name="LPphot_HIPE14p2.pdf" path="LPphot_HIPE14p2.pdf" size="130156" user="KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="LPspec_HIPE14p2.pdf" attr="" comment="launch pads for 14.2" date="1467973785" name="LPspec_HIPE14p2.pdf" path="LPspec_HIPE14p2.pdf" size="218939" user="KatrinaExter" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v3_0.pdf" attr="" comment="PACS Spectrometer Performance and Calibration Document v3.0" date="1467992765" name="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v3_0.pdf" path="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v3_0.pdf" size="1603333" user="ElenaPuga" version="1"

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PACS spectrometer calibration

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  • The PACS Spectrometer pipeline science-ready data (Level2/Level2.5) are calibrated for extended emission.
  • The calibration of the spectrometer is based on repeated measurements of planets, asteroids, and stars. The RMS scatter of these measurements are just over 10% within any spectral band, about the same when comparing different spaxels, and similar (but higher in the red) when looking for broad-band features within any band. See the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document for the exact numbers. These calibration certainties are independent, and should be combined when quoting calibration errors.
    • Telescope background model for ChopNod: a script to compute the telescope background model calibration tables and a technical note explaining the method used can be found here. Warning: the calibration tables computed with this script are not the same as the ones in the calibration tree. See the technical note for details.
>
>
  • The PACS Spectrometer pipeline science-ready data (Level2/Level2.5) are calibrated for extended emission.
  • The calibration of the spectrometer is based on repeated measurements of planets, asteroids, and stars. The RMS scatter of these measurements are just over 10% within any spectral band, about the same when comparing different spaxels, and similar (but higher in the red) when looking for broad-band features within any band. See the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document for the exact numbers. These calibration certainties are independent, and should be combined when quoting calibration errors.
    • Telescope background model for chop nod: a script to compute the telescope background model calibration tables and a technical note explaining the method used can be found here. Warning: the calibration tables computed with this script are not the same as the ones in the calibration tree. See the technical note for details.
 
  • Point source observations. To extract and calibrate the spectrum of a point source, it is necessary to use one of the tasks provided: it is not enough to add up the field-of-view of use the central spaxel only. How to do this is documented in the PACS DRG for spectroscopy.
  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations. (Please note, this document refers to the calibration status and performance of pipeline version v8.0. An update compatible with HIPE v14 release will be provided soon.) This includes:
    • flux calibration accuracies for chop nod and unchopped observations
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    • wavelength calibration, including information on a skew our native line profile develops as a point source moves off the centre of a spaxel
    • table of the point source correction factors for different wavelengths
  • An explanation of the data errors for any particular observation is provided in the PACS Data Reduction Guide for spectroscopy (sec. 7.6)
Changed:
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  • PACS spectrometer beams: version 6, can be downloaded here: PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v6.tar.gz. The PACS beam efficiencies describe the relative coupling of a point source to each spaxel as a function of the source's position in the FOV. The efficiencies are the ratio of the beam profile convolved with each detectors response and with the radiation pattern of a source, and the total power received. In order to characterise the PACS beam, Neptune raster maps at certain wavelengths were observed during the mission. Coarse 25x25 raster maps with raster step size 2.5" were obtained between ODs 174 and 751 in chopped mode covering all 25 spaxels. Also, fine Neptune 5x5 raster maps with raster step size 2” were executed on ODs 1311 and 1312. The combination of four such fine rasters, offset by 1", provide very high sampling for the central spaxel beam efficiency only. All raster maps were observed with only one chop -off position (aka, asymmetric chopNod). All these measurements were registered using least squares minimization in coordinates and gain, and a synthetic beam was constructed with the coarse raster outside the area covered by fine raster and from matched fine raster inside. Finally, this synthetic beam is interpolated into a 0.5" grid. Data were processed using the telescope background normalisation scheme to obtain the telescope-normalised signal per spaxel. The WCS associated with the beam is in sky coordinates for position angle 0. The final maps are a reconstruction of what each spaxel "sees" as the planet was rastered across each detector's aperture on the sky. Note the difference to a regular source map, where we reconstruct the spatial information as a function of position in the sky, even combining information coming from different spaxels.
>
>
  • PACS spectrometer beams: The PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies are maps of the response of each detectors on the sky. They describe the (relative) coupling of a point source to each spaxel as a function of its (the source) position in the FOV.
    • Version 6, the most up-to-date, can be directly downloaded in a tar ball PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v6.tar.gz. The corresponding calibration files are named BeamsPerSpaxelXXX, depending on the band.
    • The PACS beam efficiencies are based on Neptune raster maps at certain (14) wavelengths observed during the mission:
      • Coarse 25x25 raster maps with raster step size 2.5" were obtained between ODs 174 and 751 in chopped mode covering all 25 spaxels.
      • Fine Neptune 5x5 raster maps with raster step size 2” were executed on ODs 1311 and 1312. The combination of four such fine rasters, offset by 1", provide very high sampling for the central spaxel beam efficiency only.
      • All these measurements were registered using least squares minimization in coordinates and gain, and a synthetic beam was constructed with the coarse raster outside the area covered by fine raster and from matched fine raster inside. Finally, this synthetic beam is interpolated into a 0.5" grid.
      • All raster maps were observed with only one chop -off position (aka, asymmetric chopNod).
    • Beam efficiencies are normalised so that a point source of flux 1 at the centre of spaxel 12 has an integral of the instrument response equal to 1.
    • The WCS associated with the beam is in sky coordinates for position angle 0.
 
    • A full history of the PACS Spectrometer beam efficiencies versions can be found in PACSSBeamEfficienciesControlVersion.pdf
    • The raw data from which the PACS spectrometer beams (all versions) have been derived is also available as tables (y, z offset - signal):
      • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz:This contains a FITS file for each wavelength measured for the central spaxel only. Raw data of the coarse and fine rasters are combined. The array dimension of the fits file is [3,npoints] where the first column gives the y raster position, the 2nd column the z raster position and the 3rd column the normalised flux measured at this raster position.

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META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="PACSSBeamEfficienciesControlVersion.pdf" attr="" comment="PACS Spectrometer beam efficiencies control version documentation" date="1452270873" name="PACSSBeamEfficienciesControlVersion.pdf" path="PACSSBeamEfficienciesControlVersion.pdf" size="138530" user="ElenaPuga" version="1"
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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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PACS spectrometer calibration

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  • The PACS Spectrometer pipeline science-ready data (Level2/Level2.5) are calibrated for extended emission.
  • The calibration of the spectrometer is based on repeated measurements of planets, asteroids, and stars. The RMS scatter of these measurements are just over 10% within any spectral band, about the same when comparing different spaxels, and similar (but higher in the red) when looking for broad-band features within any band. See the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document for the exact numbers. These calibration certainties are independent, and should be combined when quoting calibration errors.
    • Telescope background model for ChopNod: a script to compute the telescope background model calibration tables and a technical note explaining the method used can be found here. Warning: the calibration tables computed with this script are not the same as the ones in the calibration tree. See the technical note for details.
  • Point source observations. To extract and calibrate the spectrum of a point source, it is necessary to use one of the tasks provided: it is not enough to add up the field-of-view of use the central spaxel only. How to do this is documented in the PACS DRG for spectroscopy.
 
  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations. (Please note, this document refers to the calibration status and performance of pipeline version v8.0. An update compatible with HIPE v14 release will be provided soon.) This includes:
    • flux calibration accuracies for chop nod and unchopped observations
    • the beam efficiencies and the PACS integral field footprint
    • spectral leakages and ghosts
    • wavelength calibration, including information on a skew our native line profile develops as a point source moves off the centre of a spaxel
    • table of the point source correction factors for different wavelengths
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  • The calibration of the spectrometer is based on repeated measurements of planets, asteroids, and stars. The RMS scatter of these measurements are just over 10% within any spectral band, about the same when comparing different spaxels, and similar (but higher in the red) when looking for broad-band features within any band. See the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document for the exact numbers. These calibration certainties are independent, and should be combined when quoting calibration errors.
 
  • An explanation of the data errors for any particular observation is provided in the PACS Data Reduction Guide for spectroscopy (sec. 7.6)
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  The PACS beam efficiencies describe the relative coupling of a point source to each spaxel as a function of the source's position in the FOV. The efficiencies are the ratio of the beam profile convolved with each detectors response and with the radiation pattern of a source, and the total power received. In order to characterise the PACS beam, Neptune raster maps at certain wavelengths were observed during the mission. Coarse 25x25 raster maps with raster step size 2.5" were obtained between ODs 174 and 751 in chopped mode covering all 25 spaxels. Also, fine Neptune 5x5 raster maps with raster step size 2” were executed on ODs 1311 and 1312. The combination of four such fine rasters, offset by 1", provide very high sampling for the central spaxel beam efficiency only. All raster maps were observed with only one chop -off position (aka, asymmetric chopNod). All these measurements were registered using least squares minimization in coordinates and gain, and a synthetic beam was constructed with the coarse raster outside the area covered by fine raster and from matched fine raster inside. Finally, this synthetic beam is interpolated into a 0.5" grid. Data were processed using the telescope background normalisation scheme to obtain the telescope-normalised signal per spaxel. The WCS associated with the beam is in sky coordinates for position angle 0. The final maps are a reconstruction of what each spaxel "sees" as the planet was rastered across each detector's aperture on the sky. Note the difference to a regular source map, where we reconstruct the spatial information as a function of position in the sky, even combining information coming from different spaxels.
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Finally, the efficiencies were calculated normalising the raster maps in the following way:
    • all the 25 beams were divided by the peak value of the central spaxel beam;
    • then, they are multiplied to match the Point Source Correction calibration file (pointSourceLoss FM_4).
 
  • A full history of the PACS Spectrometer beam efficiencies versions can be found in PACSSBeamEfficienciesControlVersion.pdf
  • The raw data from which the PACS spectrometer beams (all versions) have been derived is also available as tables (y, z offset - signal):
    • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz:This contains a FITS file for each wavelength measured for the central spaxel only. Raw data of the coarse and fine rasters are combined. The array dimension of the fits file is [3,npoints] where the first column gives the y raster position, the 2nd column the z raster position and the 3rd column the normalised flux measured at this raster position.
    • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_tables_v1.tar.gz: Raw measurements PACS beams - all spaxels, coarse raster measurements only: each fits files corresponds to one wavelength. Each file contains the data for all spaxels of the coarse raster measurement only. Each fits file holds an array of 3x25x25x25 where: (0,25,25,25)=y raster position, (1,25,25,25)=z raster position, (2,25,25,25)=flux normalized to the central spaxel. The second and third dimensions are the raster position indices (y and z) and the last dimension is the module number (=spaxel number).
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  • Point source observations. To extract and calibrate the spectrum of a point source, it is necessary to use one of the tasks provided: it is not enough to add up the field-of-view of use the central spaxel only. How to do this is documented in the PACS DRG for spectroscopy.
  • Telescope background model: a script to compute the telescope background model calibration tables and a technical note explaining the method used can be found here. Warning: the calibration tables computed with this script are not the same as the ones in the calibration tree. See the technical note for details.
 

PACS calibration file versions

  • When starting HIPE, you will be informed if new calibration files are available. Clicking on show details will show you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs. Clicking on Install will install the latest calibration files.

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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  • Highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are high-pass filtered to remove the 1/f noise, but at the expense of extended emission.
  • JScanam, a Java-version of the IDL Scanamorphos map-maker, an IDL map-maker from Hélène Roussel (IAP), with an advanced and powerful destriper for PACS maps
Changed:
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  • Unimap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker from Lorenzo Piazzo ('La Sapienza' University of Rome) running under a free Matlab runtime environment, with advanced pre-processing (drift correction, jump detection) and post-processing stages (bright sources). The runUnimap task is used to invoke the Unimap Matlab routine on the users's computer
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  • Unimap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker from Lorenzo Piazzo ('La Sapienza' University of Rome) running under a free Matlab runtime environment. It performs an advanced pre-processing (calibration blocks detection, deglitching, drift correction, jump detection), it implements the pixel noise compensation into the GLS algorithm and it provides post-processing stages. The runUnimap task is used to invoke the Unimap Matlab routine on the users's computer
 
  • MADmap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker, a GLS map-maker that is not used anymore in the SPG processing, but it is still available as an interactive script
Highpass filtering provides optimum sensitivity to point-sources while JScanam, Unimap and MadMap mappers all clean the dataset of systematic effects and remove the correlated 1/f noise, preserving at the same time the sky signal over large spatial scales. They are suited for analysing both point sources and extended emission.

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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PACS calibration and performance

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Data processing known issues of standard products for photometry and spectroscopy:

The Herschel Science Archive provides bulk-processed Level 2/2.5 products. This Data Processing Known Issues page describes typical problems and caveats the observer needs to be familiar when looking at the results of this "SPG" (standard product generation) processing. Aspects of product quality which can be further optimised by interactive processing are also summarised here. The document refers to the version of data processing pipeline currently being used for processing of incoming Herschel data.

 

Photometer calibration in scan maps

  • Point Spread Function/Encircled Energy Fraction : PACS Photometer Point Spread function (10 Mb), version 2.2, 16 November 2015. A detailed document of the in-flight observed PSF and of the derivation of the EEF curves. The accompanying TAR file can be downloaded here (79 MB). It contains the Vesta PSFs FITS files and the EEF tables for all the scanning modes.
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PACS calibration file versions

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  • When starting HIPE, you will be informed if new calibration files are available. Clicking on 'show details' will show you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs. Clicking on 'Install' will install the latest calibration files.
>
>
  • When starting HIPE, you will be informed if new calibration files are available. Clicking on show details will show you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs. Clicking on Install will install the latest calibration files.
 
  • You can inspect the release notes for the calibration sets installed on your machine from within HIPE. Open the Calibration Sets View from the menu Window -> Show Views -> Workbench.
  • The history of the calibration files that have been released to the community is provided here: PACS Calibration File History.

Reducing PACS data

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A brief introduction to reducing PACS data in HIPE. You can consult the PACS Data Reduction Guides (photometry and spectroscopy; available via HIPE) for more detail.
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Standard Products

The Herschel Science Archive provides bulk-processed Level 2/2.5 products for photometry and spectroscopy.

  • This Data Processing Known Issues page describes typical problems and caveats the observer needs to be familiar when looking at the results of this "SPG" (standard product generation) processing. Aspects of product quality which can be further optimised by interactive processing are also summarised here. The document refers to the version of data processing pipeline currently being used for processing of incoming Herschel data.
 
  • For a explanation of PACS products, i.e. what you get when you download a complete or part of an observation from the HSA, see the PACS Products Explained, which can also be found on the HIPE help pages.
  • PACS data are reduced with pipeline scripts which are a set of command-line tasks that process the data from Level 0 (raw) to Level 2/2.5 (science-ready). There is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target, AOT, and observing plan. These 'interactive' pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.
  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the 'SPG' (Standard Product Generator) using one pipeline script flavour per AOT. Which script is used is documented in the PDRG.
  • The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks within those scripts, with task settings that correspond to the most common type of science target for each AOT. But some pipeline tasks still can only be run via the interactive pipeline scripts, and to modify the parameter settings for the important pipeline tasks also requires you re-process the data. The Launch Pads (see below) include a guide to understanding the pipeline scripts and how to decide whether to reprocess your data and if so, with which script.
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Data reduction: HIPE, documentation, and useful links for data issues

 
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HIPE, data reduction documentation, and useful links for data issues

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HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data.
 
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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v14.2 It can be downloaded from: here. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 14, build 3595. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
>
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  • The recommended User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v14.2
  • In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 14, build 3595. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
 
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  • The what's new in HIPE 14 page lists the changes in HIPE version 14.2 with respect to the 14.0 series, and provides a detailed list of updated functionalities, product changes, and calibration aspects.
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  • The what's new in HIPE 14 page lists the changes in HIPE version 14.2 with respect to the 14.0, and provides a detailed list of updated functionalities, product changes, and calibration aspects.
 

Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The various interactive pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide in HIPE can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
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  • The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 14 for photometry is provided here. The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 14 for spectroscopy is provided here. These are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. Also included is
>
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  • The PACS Launch Pads are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. From HIPE 14.2:
 
    • why we recommend you do re-pipeline your data
    • what you need to pay attention to for different types of astronomical source
    • what the crucial pipeline tasks are

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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 You can also consult the PACS NHSC homepage.

Temporary notes

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Spectroscopy

 
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Due to an oversight in the pipeline scripts of HIPE 13, the drizzled cubes for chop-nod line scan observations created by "SPG 13" have incorrect fluxes. Therefore you should not use the drizzled cubes downloaded from the HSA if the Meta datum "creator" is "SPG 13.0", whether they are within the ObservationContext at Level 2, or part of a Standalone Browse Product download. Drizzled cubes created for unchopped mode observations are unaffected, and for chop-nod range scan observations, drizzled cubes are not created by the SPG 13 pipeline.

This oversight has been corrected in HIPE/SPG 14. The drizzled cubes you get in an observation downloaded from the HSA with "creator" of "SPG 14.0" have correct fluxes. In HIPE 14 there is a dedicated script to produce these drizzled cubes. Therefore we recommend you use the SPG 14.0 products, or use the dedicated pipeline in HIPE 14 if you need your drizzled cubes before the SPG 14 products are available.

Photometry

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Observing with PACS

 
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Some Unimap maps produced by SPG 13 and using HIPE 13 scripts show overshooting effects around very bright sources that are surrounded by a diffuse and relatively faint background. See, as an example, the blue image of NGC253 (obsID: 1342221743). This effect is due to a non-optimised convergence of the GLS algorithm and it will be corrected in HIPE/SPG14.
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The relevant documentation to read before working on PACS data for the first time are the following:
 
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This has been corrected in HIPE 14, and products with "creator" of "SPG 14" have no overshooting effects.

Observing with PACS

  • The PACS Observer's Manual HTML PDF (11 Mb), version 2.3, 8-June-2011 : the first thing to read before applying for time with PACS (or even before working on PACS data for the first time), as it tells you how the instrument works. This includes:
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    • A description of the layout and the components of the PACS photometer and spectrometer
    • A description of the scientific capabilities of the instrument: spectral response functions, sensitivity values, point spread functions, astrometric accuracy, flux calibration information
    • A description of the standard observing templates used to set up PACS observations; here you can also find the various acronyms that are used in the PACS data reduction guides
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Although we are now in the post-operations phase of the mission, the PACS OM and the AOT release notes can still be useful to read for a background understanding on how PACS data were gathered
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Although we are now in the post-operations phase of the mission, the PACS OM and the AOT release notes can still be useful to read for a background understanding on how PACS data were gathered.
 
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The In-flight scientific capabilities of the PACS instrument are also given in this paper: The Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel Space Observatory (1.5 Mb), Poglitsch et al., 2010, A&A, 518, L2
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PACS calibration and performance

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Data processing known issues of standard products for photometry and spectroscopy: Bulk-processed Level 2/2.5 products are provided in the Herschel Science Archive. This Data Processing Known Issues page describes typical problems and caveats the observer needs to be familiar when looking at the results of this "SPG" (standard product generation) processing. Aspects of product quality which can be further optimised by interactive processing are also summarised here. The document refers to the version of data processing pipeline currently being used for processing of incoming Herschel data.
>
>
Data processing known issues of standard products for photometry and spectroscopy:

The Herschel Science Archive provides bulk-processed Level 2/2.5 products. This Data Processing Known Issues page describes typical problems and caveats the observer needs to be familiar when looking at the results of this "SPG" (standard product generation) processing. Aspects of product quality which can be further optimised by interactive processing are also summarised here. The document refers to the version of data processing pipeline currently being used for processing of incoming Herschel data.

 

Photometer calibration in scan maps

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Photometer map-makers

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  • Four fundamentally different map-makers are offered in HIPE 14 with interactive pipeline scripts, starting from Level 1. These map-makers are used in different ways to generate standard products ("SPG" product) provided by the Herschel Science Archive. High-pass filtering is applied to generate Level2 products, while Level2.5 products are generated by combining pairs of observations acquired in the scan plus cross-scan mode, using the Unimap, JScanam, and High-pass filtering mappers. Level3 products are mosaics of Unimap and Jscanam Level2.5 products that belong to the same sky field and to the same observing program.
    • Highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are high-pass filtered to remove the 1/f noise, but at the expense of extended emission.
    • JScanam, a Java-version of the IDL Scanamorphos map-maker, an IDL map-maker from Hélène Roussel (IAP), with an advanced and powerful destriper for PACS maps
    • Unimap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker from Lorenzo Piazzo ('La Sapienza' University of Rome) running under a free Matlab runtime environment, with advanced pre-processing (drift correction, jump detection) and post-processing stages (bright sources). The runUnimap task is used to invoke the Unimap Matlab routine on the users's computer
    • MADmap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker, a GLS map-maker that is not used anymore in the SPG processing, but it is still available as an interactive script
>
>
Four fundamentally different map-makers are offered in HIPE 14 with interactive pipeline scripts, starting from Level 1. These map-makers are used in different ways to generate standard products ("SPG" product) provided by the Herschel Science Archive. High-pass filtering is applied to generate Level2 products, while Level2.5 products are generated by combining pairs of observations acquired in the scan plus cross-scan mode, using the Unimap, JScanam, and High-pass filtering mappers. Level3 products are mosaics of Unimap and Jscanam Level2.5 products that belong to the same sky field and to the same observing program.

  • Highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are high-pass filtered to remove the 1/f noise, but at the expense of extended emission.
  • JScanam, a Java-version of the IDL Scanamorphos map-maker, an IDL map-maker from Hélène Roussel (IAP), with an advanced and powerful destriper for PACS maps
  • Unimap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker from Lorenzo Piazzo ('La Sapienza' University of Rome) running under a free Matlab runtime environment, with advanced pre-processing (drift correction, jump detection) and post-processing stages (bright sources). The runUnimap task is used to invoke the Unimap Matlab routine on the users's computer
  • MADmap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker, a GLS map-maker that is not used anymore in the SPG processing, but it is still available as an interactive script
 Highpass filtering provides optimum sensitivity to point-sources while JScanam, Unimap and MadMap mappers all clean the dataset of systematic effects and remove the correlated 1/f noise, preserving at the same time the sky signal over large spatial scales. They are suited for analysing both point sources and extended emission.

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PACS calibration file versions

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  • When starting HIPE, you will be informed if new calibration files are available. Clicking on 'show details' will show you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs. Clicking on 'Install' will install the latest calibration files.
>
>
  • When starting HIPE, you will be informed if new calibration files are available. Clicking on 'show details' will show you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs. Clicking on 'Install' will install the latest calibration files.
  • You can inspect the release notes for the calibration sets installed on your machine from within HIPE. Open the Calibration Sets View from the menu Window -> Show Views -> Workbench.
 
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  • You can inspect the release notes for the calibration sets installed on your machine from within HIPE. Open the Calibration Sets View from the menu Window -> Show Views -> Workbench.
 

Reducing PACS data

A brief introduction to reducing PACS data in HIPE. You can consult the PACS Data Reduction Guides (photometry and spectroscopy; available via HIPE) for more detail.

Added:
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  • For a explanation of PACS products, i.e. what you get when you download a complete or part of an observation from the HSA, see the PACS Products Explained, which can also be found on the HIPE help pages.
 
  • PACS data are reduced with pipeline scripts which are a set of command-line tasks that process the data from Level 0 (raw) to Level 2/2.5 (science-ready). There is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target, AOT, and observing plan. These 'interactive' pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.
  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the 'SPG' (Standard Product Generator) using one pipeline script flavour per AOT. Which script is used is documented in the PDRG.
  • The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks within those scripts, with task settings that correspond to the most common type of science target for each AOT. But some pipeline tasks still can only be run via the interactive pipeline scripts, and to modify the parameter settings for the important pipeline tasks also requires you re-process the data. The Launch Pads (see below) include a guide to understanding the pipeline scripts and how to decide whether to reprocess your data and if so, with which script.
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  • For a explanation of PACS products, i.e. what you get when you download a complete or part of an observation from the HSA, see the PACS Products Explained, which can also be found on the HIPE help pages.
 

HIPE, data reduction documentation, and useful links for data issues

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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v14.0 It can be downloaded from: here. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 14, build 3341. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v14.2 It can be downloaded from: here. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 14, build 3595. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
 
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  • The what's new in HIPE 14 page lists the changes in HIPE version 14.x with respect to the 13.x series, and provides a detailed list of updated functionalities, product changes, and calibration aspects.
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  • The what's new in HIPE 14 page lists the changes in HIPE version 14.2 with respect to the 14.0 series, and provides a detailed list of updated functionalities, product changes, and calibration aspects.
 

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PACS spectrometer calibration

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PACS spectrometer calibration

 
  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations. (Please note, this document refers to the calibration status and performance of pipeline version v8.0. An update compatible with HIPE v14 release will be provided soon.) This includes:
    • flux calibration accuracies for chop nod and unchopped observations

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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  • PACS data are reduced with pipeline scripts which are a set of command-line tasks that process the data from Level 0 (raw) to Level 2/2.5 (science-ready). There is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target, AOT, and observing plan. These 'interactive' pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.
  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the 'SPG' (Standard Product Generator) using one pipeline script flavour per AOT. Which script is used is documented in the PDRG.
  • The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks within those scripts, with task settings that correspond to the most common type of science target for each AOT. But some pipeline tasks still can only be run via the interactive pipeline scripts, and to modify the parameter settings for the important pipeline tasks also requires you re-process the data. The Launch Pads (see below) include a guide to understanding the pipeline scripts and how to decide whether to reprocess your data and if so, with which script.
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  • For a explanation of PACS products, i.e. what you get when you download a complete or part of an observation from the HSA, see the PACS Products Explained, which can also be found on the HIPE help pages.
>
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  • For a explanation of PACS products, i.e. what you get when you download a complete or part of an observation from the HSA, see the PACS Products Explained, which can also be found on the HIPE help pages.
 

HIPE, data reduction documentation, and useful links for data issues

  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v14.0 It can be downloaded from: here. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 14, build 3341. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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    • table of the point source correction factors for different wavelengths
  • The calibration of the spectrometer is based on repeated measurements of planets, asteroids, and stars. The RMS scatter of these measurements are just over 10% within any spectral band, about the same when comparing different spaxels, and similar (but higher in the red) when looking for broad-band features within any band. See the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document for the exact numbers. These calibration certainties are independent, and should be combined when quoting calibration errors.
  • An explanation of the data errors for any particular observation is provided in the PACS Data Reduction Guide for spectroscopy (sec. 7.6)
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  • PACS spectrometer beams, version 3, can be downloaded here: PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v3.tar.gz. These beams are based on measurements of a raster with step size 2.5" around Neptune. These beam maps are useful e.g. if you want to compare to the flux distribution of your observation of a point source. Version 3 has the beam efficiencies for all IFU spaxels, and is a drastic improvement wrt version 2 as the spacecraft pointing was reconstructed more accurately. This reconstruction resulted in a non-equidistant sampling of the beam efficiency in the sky, but the beam products offered are equidistantly-sampled on a grid of 0.5 arcseconds. Each beam is normalised to the fitted peak value of the central spaxel. The WCS associated with the beam is in sky coordinates for position angle 0. The central part of the beam is the Gaussian fit to the measured beam efficiencies. This has been verified to be a very good description on the different raster observations we have of the central spaxels for wavelengths longer than 80 micron. Below 80 micron, the actual beam shows the square detector footprint, and the Gaussian approximation in the beam products v3 over-predicts the real beam efficiency by 1.5 to 2 percent. The outer part of the beams contains the interpolated values of the irregularly sampled measurements. Version 3 of the spectrometer beams are sharper than version 2, and shows the ghosts (ghosts are discussed in the Spectrometer Calibration Document ) more clearly, as well as the three-lobe structure of the Herschel telescope PSF.
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  • PACS spectrometer beams, version 6, can be downloaded here: PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v6.tar.gz. The PACS beam efficiencies describe the relative coupling of a point source to each spaxel as a function of the source's position in the FOV. The efficiencies are the ratio of the beam profile convolved with each detectors response and with the radiation pattern of a source, and the total power received. In order to characterise the PACS beam, Neptune raster maps at certain wavelengths were observed during the mission. Coarse 25x25 raster maps with raster step size 2.5" were obtained between ODs 174 and 751 in chopped mode covering all 25 spaxels. Also, fine Neptune 5x5 raster maps with raster step size 2” were executed on ODs 1311 and 1312. The combination of four such fine rasters, offset by 1", provide very high sampling for the central spaxel beam efficiency only. All raster maps were observed with only one chop -off position (aka, asymmetric chopNod). All these measurements were registered using least squares minimization in coordinates and gain, and a synthetic beam was constructed with the coarse raster outside the area covered by fine raster and from matched fine raster inside. Finally, this synthetic beam is interpolated into a 0.5" grid. Data were processed using the telescope background normalisation scheme to obtain the telescope-normalised signal per spaxel. The WCS associated with the beam is in sky coordinates for position angle 0. The final maps are a reconstruction of what each spaxel "sees" as the planet was rastered across each detector's aperture on the sky. Note the difference to a regular source map, where we reconstruct the spatial information as a function of position in the sky, even combining information coming from different spaxels. Finally, the efficiencies were calculated normalising the raster maps in the following way:
    • all the 25 beams were divided by the peak value of the central spaxel beam;
    • then, they are multiplied to match the Point Source Correction calibration file (pointSourceLoss FM_4).
  • A full history of the PACS Spectrometer beam efficiencies versions can be found in PACSSBeamEfficienciesControlVersion.pdf
 
  • The raw data from which the PACS spectrometer beams (all versions) have been derived is also available as tables (y, z offset - signal):
    • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz:This contains a FITS file for each wavelength measured for the central spaxel only. Raw data of the coarse and fine rasters are combined. The array dimension of the fits file is [3,npoints] where the first column gives the y raster position, the 2nd column the z raster position and the 3rd column the normalised flux measured at this raster position.
    • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_tables_v1.tar.gz: Raw measurements PACS beams - all spaxels, coarse raster measurements only: each fits files corresponds to one wavelength. Each file contains the data for all spaxels of the coarse raster measurement only. Each fits file holds an array of 3x25x25x25 where: (0,25,25,25)=y raster position, (1,25,25,25)=z raster position, (2,25,25,25)=flux normalized to the central spaxel. The second and third dimensions are the raster position indices (y and z) and the last dimension is the module number (=spaxel number).
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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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Introduction

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 This oversight has been corrected in HIPE/SPG 14. The drizzled cubes you get in an observation downloaded from the HSA with "creator" of "SPG 14.0" have correct fluxes. In HIPE 14 there is a dedicated script to produce these drizzled cubes. Therefore we recommend you use the SPG 14.0 products, or use the dedicated pipeline in HIPE 14 if you need your drizzled cubes before the SPG 14 products are available.

Photometry

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Some Unimap maps produced by SPG 13 and using HIPE 13 scripts show overshooting effects around very bright sources that are surrounded by a diffuse and relatively faint background. See, as an example, the blue image of NGC253 (obsID: 1342221743). This effect is due to a non-optimised convergence of the GLS algorithm and it will be corrected in HIPE/SPG14.
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Some Unimap maps produced by SPG 13 and using HIPE 13 scripts show overshooting effects around very bright sources that are surrounded by a diffuse and relatively faint background. See, as an example, the blue image of NGC253 (obsID: 1342221743). This effect is due to a non-optimised convergence of the GLS algorithm and it will be corrected in HIPE/SPG14.
  This has been corrected in HIPE 14, and products with "creator" of "SPG 14" have no overshooting effects.

Observing with PACS

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Photometer calibration in scan maps

  • Point Spread Function/Encircled Energy Fraction : PACS Photometer Point Spread function (10 Mb), version 2.2, 16 November 2015. A detailed document of the in-flight observed PSF and of the derivation of the EEF curves. The accompanying TAR file can be downloaded here (79 MB). It contains the Vesta PSFs FITS files and the EEF tables for all the scanning modes.
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  • Herschel/PACS modelled point spread functions (3.1 Mb) is a related document presenting Zemax modelled point spread functions for both an `ideal' and an 'as built' Herschel telescope model. Tarballs with corresponding broad-band and monochromatic PSFs for these two cases are at http://pacs.ster.kuleuven.ac.be/pubtool/PSF. These are useful in addition to the observed PSFs but cannot replace them, since the models do not capture all effects found in the observed PSFs.
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  • Herschel/PACS modelled point spread functions (3.1 Mb) is a related document presenting Zemax modelled point spread functions for both an `ideal' and an 'as built' Herschel telescope model. Tarballs with corresponding broad-band and monochromatic PSFs for these two cases are at http://pacs.ster.kuleuven.ac.be/pubtool/PSF. These are useful in addition to the observed PSFs but cannot replace them, since the models do not capture all effects found in the observed PSFs.
 
  • Point-source photometry: PACS uses 5 stars as primary calibrators with fluxes ranging from 0.6 to 15 Jy, plus fainter stars and asteroids as secondary calibrators. The absolute flux scale accuracy is dominated by the model uncertainties and amounts to 5% in the 3 filter bands. At the same time, the reproducibility for a given non-variable point source is better than 2% for all PACS bands. The flux calibration is described in detail in Balog et al, 2013, Experimental Astronomy and confirmed with asteroids in Müller et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy.
  • Point-source photometry in deep PACS maps/surveys: The e ffect of the high-pass fi lter data reduction technique on the PACS Photometer PSF, point-source photometry, and noise has been investigated in depth in this technical note.
  • Colour corrections:
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Photometer map-makers

  • Four fundamentally different map-makers are offered in HIPE 14 with interactive pipeline scripts, starting from Level 1. These map-makers are used in different ways to generate standard products ("SPG" product) provided by the Herschel Science Archive. High-pass filtering is applied to generate Level2 products, while Level2.5 products are generated by combining pairs of observations acquired in the scan plus cross-scan mode, using the Unimap, JScanam, and High-pass filtering mappers. Level3 products are mosaics of Unimap and Jscanam Level2.5 products that belong to the same sky field and to the same observing program.
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    • Highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are high-pass filtered to remove the 1/f noise, but at the expense of extended emission. It provides optimum sensitivity to point-sources
  • JScanam, Unimap and MadMap mappers all clean the dataset of systematic effects and remove the correlated 1/f noise while preserving the sky signal over large spatial scales. They are suited for analysing both point sources and extended emission.
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    • Highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are high-pass filtered to remove the 1/f noise, but at the expense of extended emission.
 
    • JScanam, a Java-version of the IDL Scanamorphos map-maker, an IDL map-maker from Hélène Roussel (IAP), with an advanced and powerful destriper for PACS maps
    • Unimap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker from Lorenzo Piazzo ('La Sapienza' University of Rome) running under a free Matlab runtime environment, with advanced pre-processing (drift correction, jump detection) and post-processing stages (bright sources). The runUnimap task is used to invoke the Unimap Matlab routine on the users's computer
    • MADmap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker, a GLS map-maker that is not used anymore in the SPG processing, but it is still available as an interactive script
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Highpass filtering provides optimum sensitivity to point-sources while JScanam, Unimap and MadMap mappers all clean the dataset of systematic effects and remove the correlated 1/f noise, preserving at the same time the sky signal over large spatial scales. They are suited for analysing both point sources and extended emission.
 
  • A report of the map-making working group compiled by Roberta Paladini is available: PACS map-making tools: analysis and benchmarking, 1 Nov. 2013.
  • An updated version of that report, concentrating on JScanam, MADmap and Unimap in their latest versions is available: PACS map-making tools: analysis and benchmarking, 30 March 2014.
  • If you are using data with SPG v 12 or lower, or reducing data with HIPE 12 or lower, remember that the optical field distortion in not applied at level 1. As a result, external map-makers starting from level 1 have a systematic flux overestimate of 6-7% in the red channel and a lower underestimate (~2%) in the blue channel of the flux scale. From HIPE 13/SPG 13 onwards, this has been corrected.
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  • Link to the General HCSS Public Twiki page (with general framework information and updates): http://herschel.esac.esa.int/twiki/bin/view/Public/WebHome
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Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The various interactive pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide in HIPE can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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  • For a explanation of PACS products, i.e. what you get when you download a complete or part of an observation from the HSA, see the PACS Products Explained, which can also be found on the HIPE help pages.

HIPE, data reduction documentation, and useful links for data issues

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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v14.0 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 14, build 3341. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v14.0 It can be downloaded from: here. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 14, build 3341. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
 

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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    • wavelength calibration, including information on a skew our native line profile develops as a point source moves off the centre of a spaxel
    • table of the point source correction factors for different wavelengths
  • The calibration of the spectrometer is based on repeated measurements of planets, asteroids, and stars. The RMS scatter of these measurements are just over 10% within any spectral band, about the same when comparing different spaxels, and similar (but higher in the red) when looking for broad-band features within any band. See the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document for the exact numbers. These calibration certainties are independent, and should be combined when quoting calibration errors.
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  • An explanation of the data errors for any particular observation is provided in the PACS Data Reduction Guide for spectroscopy (sec. 7.6 in the HIPE 13 version of the document)
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  • An explanation of the data errors for any particular observation is provided in the PACS Data Reduction Guide for spectroscopy (sec. 7.6)
 
  • PACS spectrometer beams, version 3, can be downloaded here: PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v3.tar.gz. These beams are based on measurements of a raster with step size 2.5" around Neptune. These beam maps are useful e.g. if you want to compare to the flux distribution of your observation of a point source. Version 3 has the beam efficiencies for all IFU spaxels, and is a drastic improvement wrt version 2 as the spacecraft pointing was reconstructed more accurately. This reconstruction resulted in a non-equidistant sampling of the beam efficiency in the sky, but the beam products offered are equidistantly-sampled on a grid of 0.5 arcseconds. Each beam is normalised to the fitted peak value of the central spaxel. The WCS associated with the beam is in sky coordinates for position angle 0. The central part of the beam is the Gaussian fit to the measured beam efficiencies. This has been verified to be a very good description on the different raster observations we have of the central spaxels for wavelengths longer than 80 micron. Below 80 micron, the actual beam shows the square detector footprint, and the Gaussian approximation in the beam products v3 over-predicts the real beam efficiency by 1.5 to 2 percent. The outer part of the beams contains the interpolated values of the irregularly sampled measurements. Version 3 of the spectrometer beams are sharper than version 2, and shows the ghosts (ghosts are discussed in the Spectrometer Calibration Document ) more clearly, as well as the three-lobe structure of the Herschel telescope PSF.
  • The raw data from which the PACS spectrometer beams (all versions) have been derived is also available as tables (y, z offset - signal):
    • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz:This contains a FITS file for each wavelength measured for the central spaxel only. Raw data of the coarse and fine rasters are combined. The array dimension of the fits file is [3,npoints] where the first column gives the y raster position, the 2nd column the z raster position and the 3rd column the normalised flux measured at this raster position.
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Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The various interactive pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide in HIPE can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
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  • The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 14 for photometry is provided here. The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 14 for spectroscopy is provided here. These are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. Also included is
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  • The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 14 for photometry is provided here. The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 14 for spectroscopy is provided here. These are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. Also included is
 
    • why we recommend you do re-pipeline your data
    • what you need to pay attention to for different types of astronomical source
    • what the crucial pipeline tasks are
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 Spectroscopy
  • Wavelength ranges, resolution, band names
    • The blue bands are B2A (blue, second order) and B2B (green, second order), and B3A (blue, third order), and in the red we have R1 (first order)
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  • Second-pass spectral ghosts: see sec. 4.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document to learn about ghosts. These are bright spectral lines at one wavelength "echoing" to another wavelength in another spaxel. This is also documented in sec. 4.9 of the PACS Observer's Manual * The footprint of the integral field unit: text and figures showing the footprint of the PACS IFU, and how that compares to the beam, can be found in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document (sec. 3) where you will also find information about the beam maps (at high spatial resolution and for various wavelengths), beam efficiencies, and the point source loss corrections. The same information can be found in the PACS Observer's Manual (sec. 4.6).
  • The FWHM of a point source (i.e. of the beam): this information can be found in fig. 4.12 of the PACS Observer's Manual and again in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document
  • Spectral line profile skews for off-centred sources: point sources that are not centrally located in a spaxel will show a skew to their spectral lines. The effect of this is to move the peak wavelength and slightly change the measured FWHM. Some calibration of this has been done and this can be found in sec. 4.7.2 and 4.7.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual and sec. 5.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document.
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  • Calibration certainties: these are all documented in the beginning of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document. Data errors are discussed in the PACS DRG for spectroscopy (sec. 7.6 in the HIPE 13 version).
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  • Expected signal-to-noise ratios and line sensitivity: this depends on the AOT, this information is also provided in the AOT Release Notes (see also update in sec. 6.1.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual) and can also be computed by running HSPOT.

Photometry

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    • Colour corrections: these are provided on this page in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps'
    • Aperture corrections/EEFs (encircled energy fractions) are provided in sec. 8 of the PACS Photometer Point Spread function document. See the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps' on this page.
  • Effects of nonlinearity, saturation, stray light, crosstalk and ghosts: can be found in sec. 6 of the PACS Photometer Point Spread function document
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  • Calibration certainty: is discussed on this page in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps'), with links there to two publications. You can also read sec 3.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual
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  • Calibration certainty: is discussed on this page in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps', with links there to two publications. You can also read sec 3.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual
 
  • Sensitivity: this depends on the AOT, this information is also provided in the AOT Release Notes, and can also be computed by running HSPOT.

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HIPE, data reduction documentation, and useful links for data issues

  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v14.0 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 14, build 3341. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 14 here. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
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  • The what's new in HIPE 14 page lists the changes in HIPE version 14.x with respect to the 13.x series, and provides a detailed list of updated functionalities, product changes, and calibration aspects.
  • The Data products known issues page details issues about the pipelines or the data products that are known about and offers advice for dealing with them. Consult this if you encounter problems with your data to see if it has already been addressed.
  • Link to the General HCSS Public Twiki page (with general framework information and updates): http://herschel.esac.esa.int/twiki/bin/view/Public/WebHome

Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The various interactive pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide in HIPE can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
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  • The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 14 for photometry is provided here. The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 14 for spectroscopy is provided here. These are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. Also included is
>
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  • The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 14 for photometry is provided here. The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 14 for spectroscopy is provided here. These are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. Also included is
 
    • why we recommend you do re-pipeline your data
    • what you need to pay attention to for different types of astronomical source
    • what the crucial pipeline tasks are
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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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Introduction

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  You can also consult the PACS NHSC homepage.
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Important message about drizzled cubes

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Temporary notes

Spectroscopy

 
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Due to an oversight in the pipeline scripts of HIPE 13, the drizzled cubes for chop-nod line scan observations created by "SPG 13" have incorrect fluxes. Therefore you should not use the drizzled cubes downloaded from the HSA if the Meta datum "creator" is "SPG 13.0", whether they are within the ObservationContext at Level 2, or part of a Standalone Browse Product download.

Drizzled cubes created for unchopped mode observations are unaffected, and for chop-nod range scan observations, drizzled cubes are not created by the SPG 13 pipeline.

>
>
Due to an oversight in the pipeline scripts of HIPE 13, the drizzled cubes for chop-nod line scan observations created by "SPG 13" have incorrect fluxes. Therefore you should not use the drizzled cubes downloaded from the HSA if the Meta datum "creator" is "SPG 13.0", whether they are within the ObservationContext at Level 2, or part of a Standalone Browse Product download. Drizzled cubes created for unchopped mode observations are unaffected, and for chop-nod range scan observations, drizzled cubes are not created by the SPG 13 pipeline.
  This oversight has been corrected in HIPE/SPG 14. The drizzled cubes you get in an observation downloaded from the HSA with "creator" of "SPG 14.0" have correct fluxes. In HIPE 14 there is a dedicated script to produce these drizzled cubes. Therefore we recommend you use the SPG 14.0 products, or use the dedicated pipeline in HIPE 14 if you need your drizzled cubes before the SPG 14 products are available.
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Photometry

 
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FYI: Drizzled cubes can be found in an observation in the context called HPS3DD [R|B] (red and blue). They are also provided as standalone browse products in a context called HPS3DEQ [R|B] (red and blue, equidistant wavelength grid version of the drizzled cubes). On disk the FITS files for these cubes have the same set of letters in their name (but in lower case) and are at the Level 2 part of an observation.

For more information about the standard and the standalone browse cubes provided for PACS spectroscopy, see the PACS Products Explained HIPE help document, which is also available from the PACS documentation webpage and the HIPE download webpage, both off the Herschel Science Centre webpage.

Important message about Unimap maps

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Some Unimap maps produced by SPG 13 and using HIPE 13 scripts show overshooting effects around very bright sources that are surrounded by a diffuse and relatively faint background. See, as an example, the blue image of NGC253 (obsID: 1342221743). This effect is due to a non-optimised convergence of the GLS algorithm and it will be corrected in HIPE/SPG14.
 
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Some Unimap maps produced by SPG 13 and using HIPE 13 scripts show overshooting effects around very bright sources that are surrounded by a diffuse and relatively faint background. See, as an example, the blue image of NGC253 (obsID: 1342221743). This effect is due to a non-optimised convergence of the GLS algorithm and it will be corrected in HIPE/SPG14.

This has been corrected in HIPE 14, and products with "creator" of "SPG 14" have no overshooting effects.

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This has been corrected in HIPE 14, and products with "creator" of "SPG 14" have no overshooting effects.
 

Observing with PACS

  • The PACS Observer's Manual HTML PDF (11 Mb), version 2.3, 8-June-2011 : the first thing to read before applying for time with PACS (or even before working on PACS data for the first time), as it tells you how the instrument works. This includes:
    • A description of the layout and the components of the PACS photometer and spectrometer
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Photometer calibration in scan maps

  • Point Spread Function/Encircled Energy Fraction : PACS Photometer Point Spread function (10 Mb), version 2.2, 16 November 2015. A detailed document of the in-flight observed PSF and of the derivation of the EEF curves. The accompanying TAR file can be downloaded here (79 MB). It contains the Vesta PSFs FITS files and the EEF tables for all the scanning modes.
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  • Herschel/PACS modelled point spread functions (3.1 Mb) is a related document presenting Zemax modelled point spread functions for both an `ideal' and an 'as built' Herschel telescope model. Tarballs with corresponding broad-band and monochromatic PSFs for these two cases are at http://pacs.ster.kuleuven.ac.be/pubtool/PSF. These are useful in addition to the observed PSFs but cannot replace them, since the models do not capture all effects found in the observed PSFs.
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  • Herschel/PACS modelled point spread functions (3.1 Mb) is a related document presenting Zemax modelled point spread functions for both an `ideal' and an 'as built' Herschel telescope model. Tarballs with corresponding broad-band and monochromatic PSFs for these two cases are at http://pacs.ster.kuleuven.ac.be/pubtool/PSF. These are useful in addition to the observed PSFs but cannot replace them, since the models do not capture all effects found in the observed PSFs.
 
  • Point-source photometry: PACS uses 5 stars as primary calibrators with fluxes ranging from 0.6 to 15 Jy, plus fainter stars and asteroids as secondary calibrators. The absolute flux scale accuracy is dominated by the model uncertainties and amounts to 5% in the 3 filter bands. At the same time, the reproducibility for a given non-variable point source is better than 2% for all PACS bands. The flux calibration is described in detail in Balog et al, 2013, Experimental Astronomy and confirmed with asteroids in Müller et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy.
  • Point-source photometry in deep PACS maps/surveys: The e ffect of the high-pass fi lter data reduction technique on the PACS Photometer PSF, point-source photometry, and noise has been investigated in depth in this technical note.
  • Colour corrections:
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Photometer map-makers

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  • Four fundamentally different map-makers are offered in HIPE 13 with interactive pipeline scripts, starting from Level 1. These map-makers are used in different ways to generate standard products ("SPG" product) provided by the Herschel Science Archive. High-pass filtering is applied to generate Level2 products, while Level2.5 products are generated by combining pairs of observations acquired in the scan plus cross-scan mode, using the Unimap, JScanam, and High-pass filtering mappers. Level3 products are mosaics of Unimap and Jscanam Level2.5 products that belong to the same sky field and to the same observing program.

    JScanam, Unimap and MadMap mappers all clean the dataset of systematic effects and remove the correlated 1/f noise while preserving the sky signal over large spatial scales. They are suited for analysing both point sources and extended emission.

    • Highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are high-pass filtered to remove the 1/f noise, but at the expense of extended emission. It provides optimum sensitivity for point-sources
>
>
  • Four fundamentally different map-makers are offered in HIPE 14 with interactive pipeline scripts, starting from Level 1. These map-makers are used in different ways to generate standard products ("SPG" product) provided by the Herschel Science Archive. High-pass filtering is applied to generate Level2 products, while Level2.5 products are generated by combining pairs of observations acquired in the scan plus cross-scan mode, using the Unimap, JScanam, and High-pass filtering mappers. Level3 products are mosaics of Unimap and Jscanam Level2.5 products that belong to the same sky field and to the same observing program.
    • Highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are high-pass filtered to remove the 1/f noise, but at the expense of extended emission. It provides optimum sensitivity to point-sources
  • JScanam, Unimap and MadMap mappers all clean the dataset of systematic effects and remove the correlated 1/f noise while preserving the sky signal over large spatial scales. They are suited for analysing both point sources and extended emission.
 
    • JScanam, a Java-version of the IDL Scanamorphos map-maker, an IDL map-maker from Hélène Roussel (IAP), with an advanced and powerful destriper for PACS maps
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    • Unimap, a light (memory-wise) GLS (generalised least square) map-maker from Lorenzo Piazzo ('La Sapienza' University of Rome) running under a free Matlab runtime environment, with advanced pre-processing (drift correction, jump detection) and post-processing stages (bright sources). The runUnimap task is used to invoke the Unimap Matlab routine on the users's computer
    • MADmap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker, a GLS map-maker that is not used anymore in the SPG processing, but it is still available as an interactive script
>
>
    • Unimap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker from Lorenzo Piazzo ('La Sapienza' University of Rome) running under a free Matlab runtime environment, with advanced pre-processing (drift correction, jump detection) and post-processing stages (bright sources). The runUnimap task is used to invoke the Unimap Matlab routine on the users's computer
    • MADmap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker, a GLS map-maker that is not used anymore in the SPG processing, but it is still available as an interactive script
 
  • A report of the map-making working group compiled by Roberta Paladini is available: PACS map-making tools: analysis and benchmarking, 1 Nov. 2013.
  • An updated version of that report, concentrating on JScanam, MADmap and Unimap in their latest versions is available: PACS map-making tools: analysis and benchmarking, 30 March 2014.
  • If you are using data with SPG v 12 or lower, or reducing data with HIPE 12 or lower, remember that the optical field distortion in not applied at level 1. As a result, external map-makers starting from level 1 have a systematic flux overestimate of 6-7% in the red channel and a lower underestimate (~2%) in the blue channel of the flux scale. From HIPE 13/SPG 13 onwards, this has been corrected.
  • Links:
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PACS spectrometer calibration

 
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PACS spectrometer calibration

  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations. (Please note, this document refers to the calibration status and performance of pipeline version v8.0. An update compatible with HIPE v13 release will be provided soon.) This includes:
>
>
  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations. (Please note, this document refers to the calibration status and performance of pipeline version v8.0. An update compatible with HIPE v14 release will be provided soon.) This includes:
 
    • flux calibration accuracies for chop nod and unchopped observations
    • the beam efficiencies and the PACS integral field footprint
    • spectral leakages and ghosts
Line: 108 to 102
 
  • PACS data are reduced with pipeline scripts which are a set of command-line tasks that process the data from Level 0 (raw) to Level 2/2.5 (science-ready). There is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target, AOT, and observing plan. These 'interactive' pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.
  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the 'SPG' (Standard Product Generator) using one pipeline script flavour per AOT. Which script is used is documented in the PDRG.
  • The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks within those scripts, with task settings that correspond to the most common type of science target for each AOT. But some pipeline tasks still can only be run via the interactive pipeline scripts, and to modify the parameter settings for the important pipeline tasks also requires you re-process the data. The Launch Pads (see below) include a guide to understanding the pipeline scripts and how to decide whether to reprocess your data and if so, with which script.
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  • For a explanation of PACS products, i.e. what you get when you download a complete or part of an observation from the HSA, see the PACS Products Explained, which can also be found on the HIPE help pages.
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  • For a explanation of PACS products, i.e. what you get when you download a complete or part of an observation from the HSA, see the PACS Products Explained, which can also be found on the HIPE help pages.
 

HIPE, data reduction documentation, and useful links for data issues

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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v13.0 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 13, build 5130. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 13 here. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
  • The what's new in HIPE 13 page lists the changes in HIPE version 13.x with respect to the 12.x series, and provides a detailed list of updated functionalities, product changes, and calibration aspects.
>
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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v14.0 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 14, build 3341. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 14 here. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
  • The what's new in HIPE 14 page lists the changes in HIPE version 14.x with respect to the 13.x series, and provides a detailed list of updated functionalities, product changes, and calibration aspects.
 
  • The Data products known issues page details issues about the pipelines or the data products that are known about and offers advice for dealing with them. Consult this if you encounter problems with your data to see if it has already been addressed.
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  • Link to the General HCSS Public Twiki page (with general framework information and updates): http://herschel.esac.esa.int/twiki/bin/view/Public/WebHome
 

Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The various interactive pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide in HIPE can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
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  • The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 13 for photometry is provided here. The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 13 for spectroscopy is provided here. These are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. Also included is
>
>
  • The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 14 for photometry is provided here. The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 14 for spectroscopy is provided here. These are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. Also included is
 
    • why we recommend you do re-pipeline your data
    • what you need to pay attention to for different types of astronomical source
    • what the crucial pipeline tasks are
    • what the post-pipeline processing tasks that we provide are

Tutorials and scripts

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  • The Scripts menu in HIPE takes you to a set of PACS photometry and spectroscopy useful scripts. In HIPE 13 these are:
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  • The Scripts menu in HIPE takes you to a set of PACS photometry and spectroscopy useful scripts. In HIPE 14 these are:
 
    • Point source aperture photometry
    • Multiple point source aperture photometry
    • Image convolution (photometry)

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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Photometer map-makers

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  • Four fundamentally different map-makers are offered in HIPE 13 with interactive pipeline scripts, starting from Level 1. These map-makers are used in different ways to generate standard products ("SPG" product) provided by the Herschel Science Archive: high-pass filtering is applied to generate Level2 products, while Unimap and JScanam are used to create Level2.5 products. Level3 products are mosaics of Level2.5 products that belong to the same sky field and to the same observing program.
    • Highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are high-pass filtered to remove the 1/f noise, but at the expense of extended emission. It provides optimum sensitivity to point-sources
    • MADmap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker, that allows one to preserve extended emission at all scales. MADMap is not used anymore in the SPG processing, but it is still available as an interactive script.
    • Unimap, a light (memory-wise) GLS map-maker from Lorenzo Piazzo ('La Sapienza' University of Rome) under a free Matlab runtime environment, with advanced pre-processing (drift correction, jump detection) and post-processing stages (bright sources). The runUnimap task is used to invoke the Unimap Matlab routine on the users's computer.
    • JScanam, a Java-version of the IDL Scanamorphos map-maker, an IDL map-maker from Hélène Roussel (IAP) with an advanced and powerful destriper for PACS maps.
>
>
  • Four fundamentally different map-makers are offered in HIPE 13 with interactive pipeline scripts, starting from Level 1. These map-makers are used in different ways to generate standard products ("SPG" product) provided by the Herschel Science Archive. High-pass filtering is applied to generate Level2 products, while Level2.5 products are generated by combining pairs of observations acquired in the scan plus cross-scan mode, using the Unimap, JScanam, and High-pass filtering mappers. Level3 products are mosaics of Unimap and Jscanam Level2.5 products that belong to the same sky field and to the same observing program.

    JScanam, Unimap and MadMap mappers all clean the dataset of systematic effects and remove the correlated 1/f noise while preserving the sky signal over large spatial scales. They are suited for analysing both point sources and extended emission.

    • Highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are high-pass filtered to remove the 1/f noise, but at the expense of extended emission. It provides optimum sensitivity for point-sources
    • JScanam, a Java-version of the IDL Scanamorphos map-maker, an IDL map-maker from Hélène Roussel (IAP), with an advanced and powerful destriper for PACS maps
    • Unimap, a light (memory-wise) GLS (generalised least square) map-maker from Lorenzo Piazzo ('La Sapienza' University of Rome) running under a free Matlab runtime environment, with advanced pre-processing (drift correction, jump detection) and post-processing stages (bright sources). The runUnimap task is used to invoke the Unimap Matlab routine on the users's computer
    • MADmap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker, a GLS map-maker that is not used anymore in the SPG processing, but it is still available as an interactive script
 
Changed:
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  • If you are using data with SPG v 12 or reducing data with HIPE 12, remember that the optical field distortion in not applied at level 1. As a result, external map-makers starting from level 1 have a systematic flux overestimate of 6-7% in the red channel and a lower underestimate (~2%) in the blue channel of the flux scale.
>
>
  • If you are using data with SPG v 12 or lower, or reducing data with HIPE 12 or lower, remember that the optical field distortion in not applied at level 1. As a result, external map-makers starting from level 1 have a systematic flux overestimate of 6-7% in the red channel and a lower underestimate (~2%) in the blue channel of the flux scale. From HIPE 13/SPG 13 onwards, this has been corrected.
 

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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  • Chop/nod observations:
    • Chop/nod observations were not used for scientific observations during the mission, however they were heavily used for the photometry monitoring and well as numerous observations for the pointing accuracy check/monitoring. See Nielbock et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy for the time dependent flux calibration for the PACS chopped point-source photometry AOT mode.
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<!--
A new responsivity calibration (version) is deployed on the HCSS 7 track (this is explained in the internal report PICC-ME-TN-033 v1.01, where the associated encircled energy fraction [EEF] is given). This improves the accuracy of photometry to 3% in the blue channel and 5% in the red channel.
"PACS photometer point-source flux calibration (3.1 Mb) (PICC-ME-TN-037), version 1.0, 12 April 2011.
We refer to: PACS Photometer: chop/nod point-source & mini-scan map AOT release note: (2 Mb) version 2.0, 12 November 2010. We recommend you use the mini scan-map technique in all science cases related to point-sources, compact sources and also in cases of faint extended emission around point-sources. The chop/nod mode is no longer recommended for use
* However, for a technical assessment of the original chop/nod mode sensitivity intended for point-sources, we refer to SAp-PACS-MS-0711-09 (5.5 Mb) and to the paper "The Herschel PACS photometer calibration - A time dependent flux calibration for the PACS chopped point-source photometry AOT mode" for the calibration of that mode
-->
 

Photometer map-makers

  • Four fundamentally different map-makers are offered in HIPE 13 with interactive pipeline scripts, starting from Level 1. These map-makers are used in different ways to generate standard products ("SPG" product) provided by the Herschel Science Archive: high-pass filtering is applied to generate Level2 products, while Unimap and JScanam are used to create Level2.5 products. Level3 products are mosaics of Level2.5 products that belong to the same sky field and to the same observing program.
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<!-- This is corrected for MADmap in HIPE 12 by the task convertToFixedPixelSize() at the end of level1. The flux difference come from the fact that the mean values of the optical flat are significantly different from 1, in other words it cannot be assumed by external map-makers that the pixel sizes is constant of the field of view at 3.2"/6.4 in the blue/red channel respectively. Scanamorphos and Unimap are also affected, but not JScanam that makes use of photProject.-->

PACS spectrometer calibration

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PACS spectrometer calibration
 
  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations. (Please note, this document refers to the calibration status and performance of pipeline version v8.0. An update compatible with HIPE v13 release will be provided soon.) This includes:
    • flux calibration accuracies for chop nod and unchopped observations

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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  You can also consult the PACS NHSC homepage.
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Important message about drizzled cubes in HIPE 13

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Important message about drizzled cubes

 
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Due to an oversight in the pipeline scripts of HIPE 13, the drizzled cubes you get for chop-nod line scan observations created by "SPG 13" will have incorrect fluxes. Therefore you should not use the drizzled cubes downloaded from the HSA if the Meta datum "creator" is "SPG 13.0", whether they are within the ObservationContext at Level 2, or part of a Standalone Browse Product download. Any drizzled cubes created for unchopped mode observations will be unaffected. For chop-nod range scan observations, drizzled cubes are not created by the SPG 13 pipeline anyway. This oversight will be corrected in HIPE/SPG 14.
>
>
Due to an oversight in the pipeline scripts of HIPE 13, the drizzled cubes for chop-nod line scan observations created by "SPG 13" have incorrect fluxes. Therefore you should not use the drizzled cubes downloaded from the HSA if the Meta datum "creator" is "SPG 13.0", whether they are within the ObservationContext at Level 2, or part of a Standalone Browse Product download.
 
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For the affected observations you have the following alternatives:
  • Use the projected cubes instead, which you will also find within the ObservationContext at Level 2, but which are not part of the Standalone Browse Product download for the affected observations.
  • Run one of the interactive pipeline scripts to create the drizzled cubes yourself. Contact the Herschel Helpdesk first to ask for an updated pipeline script to do this, since the interactive pipeline scripts in HIPE 13 (and 12) also contain the mistake.
>
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Drizzled cubes created for unchopped mode observations are unaffected, and for chop-nod range scan observations, drizzled cubes are not created by the SPG 13 pipeline.
 
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For Your Information: Drizzled cubes FITS files, and their name as listed in an ObservationContext, are: HPS3DD [R|B] (red and blue) Standalone browse product drizzled cube FITS files, and their name as listed in an ObservationContext in the browse product section are: HPS3DEQ [R|B] (red and blue, equidistant wavelength grid version of the drizzled cubes). Projected cubes have the name: HPS3DP [R|B].
>
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This oversight has been corrected in HIPE/SPG 14. The drizzled cubes you get in an observation downloaded from the HSA with "creator" of "SPG 14.0" have correct fluxes. In HIPE 14 there is a dedicated script to produce these drizzled cubes. Therefore we recommend you use the SPG 14.0 products, or use the dedicated pipeline in HIPE 14 if you need your drizzled cubes before the SPG 14 products are available.
 
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For more information about the standard and the standalone browse cubes provided for PACS spectroscopy, see the PACS Products Explained HIPE help document (which is also linked as a PDF file in the Data Reduction section).
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FYI: Drizzled cubes can be found in an observation in the context called HPS3DD [R|B] (red and blue). They are also provided as standalone browse products in a context called HPS3DEQ [R|B] (red and blue, equidistant wavelength grid version of the drizzled cubes). On disk the FITS files for these cubes have the same set of letters in their name (but in lower case) and are at the Level 2 part of an observation.
 
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Important message about Unimap maps in HIPE 13

>
>
For more information about the standard and the standalone browse cubes provided for PACS spectroscopy, see the PACS Products Explained HIPE help document, which is also available from the PACS documentation webpage and the HIPE download webpage, both off the Herschel Science Centre webpage.

Important message about Unimap maps

 
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Some Unimap maps show overshooting effects around very bright sources that are surrounded by a diffuse and relatively faint background. See, as an example, the blue image of NGC253 (obsID: 1342221743). This effect is due to a not optimised convergence of the GLS algorithm and it will be corrected in HIPE/SPG14.
>
>
Some Unimap maps produced by SPG 13 and using HIPE 13 scripts show overshooting effects around very bright sources that are surrounded by a diffuse and relatively faint background. See, as an example, the blue image of NGC253 (obsID: 1342221743). This effect is due to a non-optimised convergence of the GLS algorithm and it will be corrected in HIPE/SPG14.
 
Added:
>
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This has been corrected in HIPE 14, and products with "creator" of "SPG 14" have no overshooting effects.
 

Observing with PACS

  • The PACS Observer's Manual HTML PDF (11 Mb), version 2.3, 8-June-2011 : the first thing to read before applying for time with PACS (or even before working on PACS data for the first time), as it tells you how the instrument works. This includes:
    • A description of the layout and the components of the PACS photometer and spectrometer

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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Photometer calibration in scan maps

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  • Point Spread Function/Encircled Energy Fraction : PACS Photometer Point Spread function (10 Mb), version 2.2, 16 November 2015. A detailed document of the in-flight observed PSF and of the derivation of the EEF curves. The accompanying tar files are the EEF tables for all the scanning strategies (Parallel/Prime mode, Fast/Medium scan speed) and the Vesta PSFs FITS files for Prime (51 MB) and Parallel (29MB) observations.
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  • Point Spread Function/Encircled Energy Fraction : PACS Photometer Point Spread function (10 Mb), version 2.2, 16 November 2015. A detailed document of the in-flight observed PSF and of the derivation of the EEF curves. The accompanying TAR file can be downloaded here (79 MB). It contains the Vesta PSFs FITS files and the EEF tables for all the scanning modes.
 
  • Herschel/PACS modelled point spread functions (3.1 Mb) is a related document presenting Zemax modelled point spread functions for both an `ideal' and an 'as built' Herschel telescope model. Tarballs with corresponding broad-band and monochromatic PSFs for these two cases are at http://pacs.ster.kuleuven.ac.be/pubtool/PSF. These are useful in addition to the observed PSFs but cannot replace them, since the models do not capture all effects found in the observed PSFs.
  • Point-source photometry: PACS uses 5 stars as primary calibrators with fluxes ranging from 0.6 to 15 Jy, plus fainter stars and asteroids as secondary calibrators. The absolute flux scale accuracy is dominated by the model uncertainties and amounts to 5% in the 3 filter bands. At the same time, the reproducibility for a given non-variable point source is better than 2% for all PACS bands. The flux calibration is described in detail in Balog et al, 2013, Experimental Astronomy and confirmed with asteroids in Müller et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy.
  • Point-source photometry in deep PACS maps/surveys: The e ffect of the high-pass fi lter data reduction technique on the PACS Photometer PSF, point-source photometry, and noise has been investigated in depth in this technical note.

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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Introduction

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Important message about drizzled cubes in HIPE 13

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Due to an oversight in the pipeline scripts of HIPE 13, the drizzled cubes you get for chop-nod line scan observations created by "SPG 13" will have incorrect fluxes. Therefore you should not use the drizzled cubes downloaded from the HSA if the Meta datum "creator" is "SPG 13.0", whether they are within the ObservationContext at Level 2, or part of a Standalone Browse Product download. Any drizzled cubes created for unchopped mode observations will be unaffected. For chop-nod range scan observations, drizzled cubes are not created by the SPG 13 pipeline anyway. This oversight will be corrected in HIPE/SPG 14.
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Due to an oversight in the pipeline scripts of HIPE 13, the drizzled cubes you get for chop-nod line scan observations created by "SPG 13" will have incorrect fluxes. Therefore you should not use the drizzled cubes downloaded from the HSA if the Meta datum "creator" is "SPG 13.0", whether they are within the ObservationContext at Level 2, or part of a Standalone Browse Product download. Any drizzled cubes created for unchopped mode observations will be unaffected. For chop-nod range scan observations, drizzled cubes are not created by the SPG 13 pipeline anyway. This oversight will be corrected in HIPE/SPG 14.
  For the affected observations you have the following alternatives:
  • Use the projected cubes instead, which you will also find within the ObservationContext at Level 2, but which are not part of the Standalone Browse Product download for the affected observations.
  • Run one of the interactive pipeline scripts to create the drizzled cubes yourself. Contact the Herschel Helpdesk first to ask for an updated pipeline script to do this, since the interactive pipeline scripts in HIPE 13 (and 12) also contain the mistake.
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For Your Information: Drizzled cubes FITS files, and their name as listed in an ObservationContext, are: HPS3DD [R|B] (red and blue) Standalone browse product drizzled cube FITS files, and their name as listed in an ObservationContext in the browse product section are: HPS3DEQ [R|B] (red and blue, equidistant wavelength grid version of the drizzled cubes). Projected cubes have the name: HPS3DP [R|B].
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For Your Information: Drizzled cubes FITS files, and their name as listed in an ObservationContext, are: HPS3DD [R|B] (red and blue) Standalone browse product drizzled cube FITS files, and their name as listed in an ObservationContext in the browse product section are: HPS3DEQ [R|B] (red and blue, equidistant wavelength grid version of the drizzled cubes). Projected cubes have the name: HPS3DP [R|B].
  For more information about the standard and the standalone browse cubes provided for PACS spectroscopy, see the PACS Products Explained HIPE help document (which is also linked as a PDF file in the Data Reduction section).

Important message about Unimap maps in HIPE 13

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Some Unimap maps show overshooting effects around very bright sources that are surrounded by a diffuse and relatively faint background. See, as an example, the blue image of NGC253 (obsID: 1342221743). This effect is due to a not optimised convergence of the GLS algorithm and it will be corrected in HIPE/SPG14.
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Some Unimap maps show overshooting effects around very bright sources that are surrounded by a diffuse and relatively faint background. See, as an example, the blue image of NGC253 (obsID: 1342221743). This effect is due to a not optimised convergence of the GLS algorithm and it will be corrected in HIPE/SPG14.
 

Observing with PACS

  • The PACS Observer's Manual HTML PDF (11 Mb), version 2.3, 8-June-2011 : the first thing to read before applying for time with PACS (or even before working on PACS data for the first time), as it tells you how the instrument works. This includes:
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Photometer calibration in scan maps

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  • Point Spread Function: PACS Photometer Point Spread function (10 Mb), version 2.2, 16 November 2015. A detailed document of the in-flight observed PSF. The accompanying tarball can be found here (76 Mb).
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  • Point Spread Function/Encircled Energy Fraction : PACS Photometer Point Spread function (10 Mb), version 2.2, 16 November 2015. A detailed document of the in-flight observed PSF and of the derivation of the EEF curves. The accompanying tar files are the EEF tables for all the scanning strategies (Parallel/Prime mode, Fast/Medium scan speed) and the Vesta PSFs FITS files for Prime (51 MB) and Parallel (29MB) observations.
 
  • Herschel/PACS modelled point spread functions (3.1 Mb) is a related document presenting Zemax modelled point spread functions for both an `ideal' and an 'as built' Herschel telescope model. Tarballs with corresponding broad-band and monochromatic PSFs for these two cases are at http://pacs.ster.kuleuven.ac.be/pubtool/PSF. These are useful in addition to the observed PSFs but cannot replace them, since the models do not capture all effects found in the observed PSFs.
  • Point-source photometry: PACS uses 5 stars as primary calibrators with fluxes ranging from 0.6 to 15 Jy, plus fainter stars and asteroids as secondary calibrators. The absolute flux scale accuracy is dominated by the model uncertainties and amounts to 5% in the 3 filter bands. At the same time, the reproducibility for a given non-variable point source is better than 2% for all PACS bands. The flux calibration is described in detail in Balog et al, 2013, Experimental Astronomy and confirmed with asteroids in Müller et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy.
  • Point-source photometry in deep PACS maps/surveys: The e ffect of the high-pass fi lter data reduction technique on the PACS Photometer PSF, point-source photometry, and noise has been investigated in depth in this technical note.
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  • Chop/nod observations:
    • Chop/nod observations were not used for scientific observations during the mission, however they were heavily used for the photometry monitoring and well as numerous observations for the pointing accuracy check/monitoring. See Nielbock et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy for the time dependent flux calibration for the PACS chopped point-source photometry AOT mode.
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A new responsivity calibration (version) is deployed on the HCSS 7 track (this is explained in the internal report PICC-ME-TN-033 v1.01, where the associated encircled energy fraction [EEF] is given). This improves the accuracy of photometry to 3% in the blue channel and 5% in the red channel. 
"PACS photometer point-source flux calibration (3.1 Mb) (PICC-ME-TN-037), version 1.0, 12 April 2011.
We refer to: PACS Photometer: chop/nod point-source & mini-scan map AOT release note: (2 Mb) version 2.0, 12 November 2010. We recommend you use the mini scan-map technique in all science cases related to point-sources, compact sources and also in cases of faint extended emission around point-sources. The chop/nod mode is no longer recommended for use  
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A new responsivity calibration (version) is deployed on the HCSS 7 track (this is explained in the internal report PICC-ME-TN-033 v1.01, where the associated encircled energy fraction [EEF] is given). This improves the accuracy of photometry to 3% in the blue channel and 5% in the red channel.
"PACS photometer point-source flux calibration (3.1 Mb) (PICC-ME-TN-037), version 1.0, 12 April 2011.
We refer to: PACS Photometer: chop/nod point-source & mini-scan map AOT release note: (2 Mb) version 2.0, 12 November 2010. We recommend you use the mini scan-map technique in all science cases related to point-sources, compact sources and also in cases of faint extended emission around point-sources. The chop/nod mode is no longer recommended for use
* However, for a technical assessment of the original chop/nod mode sensitivity intended for point-sources, we refer to SAp-PACS-MS-0711-09 (5.5 Mb) and to the paper "The Herschel PACS photometer calibration - A time dependent flux calibration for the PACS chopped point-source photometry AOT mode" for the calibration of that mode
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Photometer map-makers

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  • Four fundamentally different map-makers are offered in HIPE 13 with interactive pipeline scripts, starting from Level 1. These map-makers are used in different ways to generate standard products ("SPG" product) provided by the Herschel Science Archive: high-pass filtering is applied to generate Level2 products, while Unimap and JScanam are used to create Level2.5 products. Level3 products are mosaics of Level2.5 products that belong to the same sky field and to the same observing program.
    • Highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are high-pass filtered to remove the 1/f noise, but at the expense of extended emission. It provides optimum sensitivity to point-sources
    • MADmap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker, that allows one to preserve extended emission at all scales. MADMap is not used anymore in the SPG processing, but it is still available as an interactive script.
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  • An updated version of that report, concentrating on JScanam, MADmap and Unimap in their latest versions is available: PACS map-making tools: analysis and benchmarking, 30 March 2014.
  • If you are using data with SPG v 12 or reducing data with HIPE 12, remember that the optical field distortion in not applied at level 1. As a result, external map-makers starting from level 1 have a systematic flux overestimate of 6-7% in the red channel and a lower underestimate (~2%) in the blue channel of the flux scale.
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    • Scanamorphos by H. Roussel can be used to build maps from scan observations made with bolometer arrays, in particular with the PACS and SPIRE photometers
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    • Scanamorphos by H. Roussel can be used to build maps from scan observations made with bolometer arrays, in particular with the PACS and SPIRE photometers
 
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<-- This is corrected for MADmap in HIPE 12 by the task convertToFixedPixelSize() at the end of level1. The flux difference come from the fact that the mean values of the optical flat are significantly different from 1, in other words it cannot be assumed by external map-makers that the pixel sizes is constant of the field of view at 3.2"/6.4 in the blue/red channel respectively. Scanamorphos and Unimap are also affected, but not JScanam that makes use of photProject.-->
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<!-- This is corrected for MADmap in HIPE 12 by the task convertToFixedPixelSize() at the end of level1. The flux difference come from the fact that the mean values of the optical flat are significantly different from 1, in other words it cannot be assumed by external map-makers that the pixel sizes is constant of the field of view at 3.2"/6.4 in the blue/red channel respectively. Scanamorphos and Unimap are also affected, but not JScanam that makes use of photProject.-->
 

PACS spectrometer calibration

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  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations. (Please note, this document refers to the calibration status and performance of pipeline version v8.0. An update compatible with HIPE v13 release will be provided soon.) This includes:
    • flux calibration accuracies for chop nod and unchopped observations
    • the beam efficiencies and the PACS integral field footprint
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  • PACS spectrometer beams, version 3, can be downloaded here: PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v3.tar.gz. These beams are based on measurements of a raster with step size 2.5" around Neptune. These beam maps are useful e.g. if you want to compare to the flux distribution of your observation of a point source. Version 3 has the beam efficiencies for all IFU spaxels, and is a drastic improvement wrt version 2 as the spacecraft pointing was reconstructed more accurately. This reconstruction resulted in a non-equidistant sampling of the beam efficiency in the sky, but the beam products offered are equidistantly-sampled on a grid of 0.5 arcseconds. Each beam is normalised to the fitted peak value of the central spaxel. The WCS associated with the beam is in sky coordinates for position angle 0. The central part of the beam is the Gaussian fit to the measured beam efficiencies. This has been verified to be a very good description on the different raster observations we have of the central spaxels for wavelengths longer than 80 micron. Below 80 micron, the actual beam shows the square detector footprint, and the Gaussian approximation in the beam products v3 over-predicts the real beam efficiency by 1.5 to 2 percent. The outer part of the beams contains the interpolated values of the irregularly sampled measurements. Version 3 of the spectrometer beams are sharper than version 2, and shows the ghosts (ghosts are discussed in the Spectrometer Calibration Document ) more clearly, as well as the three-lobe structure of the Herschel telescope PSF.
  • The raw data from which the PACS spectrometer beams (all versions) have been derived is also available as tables (y, z offset - signal):
    • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz:This contains a FITS file for each wavelength measured for the central spaxel only. Raw data of the coarse and fine rasters are combined. The array dimension of the fits file is [3,npoints] where the first column gives the y raster position, the 2nd column the z raster position and the 3rd column the normalised flux measured at this raster position.
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    • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_tables_v1.tar.gz: Raw measurements PACS beams - all spaxels, coarse raster measurements only: each fits files corresponds to one wavelength. Each file contains the data for all spaxels of the coarse raster measurement only. Each fits file holds an array of 3x25x25x25 where: (0,25,25,25)=y raster position, (1,25,25,25)=z raster position, (2,25,25,25)=flux normalized to the central spaxel. The second and third dimensions are the raster position indices (y and z) and the last dimension is the module number (=spaxel number).
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    • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_tables_v1.tar.gz: Raw measurements PACS beams - all spaxels, coarse raster measurements only: each fits files corresponds to one wavelength. Each file contains the data for all spaxels of the coarse raster measurement only. Each fits file holds an array of 3x25x25x25 where: (0,25,25,25)=y raster position, (1,25,25,25)=z raster position, (2,25,25,25)=flux normalized to the central spaxel. The second and third dimensions are the raster position indices (y and z) and the last dimension is the module number (=spaxel number).
 
  • Point source observations. To extract and calibrate the spectrum of a point source, it is necessary to use one of the tasks provided: it is not enough to add up the field-of-view of use the central spaxel only. How to do this is documented in the PACS DRG for spectroscopy.
  • Telescope background model: a script to compute the telescope background model calibration tables and a technical note explaining the method used can be found here. Warning: the calibration tables computed with this script are not the same as the ones in the calibration tree. See the technical note for details.
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PACS calibration file versions

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  • When starting HIPE, you will be informed if new calibration files are available. Clicking on 'show details' will show you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs. Clicking on 'Install' will install the latest calibration files.
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  • When starting HIPE, you will be informed if new calibration files are available. Clicking on 'show details' will show you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs. Clicking on 'Install' will install the latest calibration files.
 
  • The history of the calibration files that have been released to the community is provided here: PACS Calibration File History.
  • You can inspect the release notes for the calibration sets installed on your machine from within HIPE. Open the Calibration Sets View from the menu Window -> Show Views -> Workbench.
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Reducing PACS data

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 A brief introduction to reducing PACS data in HIPE. You can consult the PACS Data Reduction Guides (photometry and spectroscopy; available via HIPE) for more detail.
  • PACS data are reduced with pipeline scripts which are a set of command-line tasks that process the data from Level 0 (raw) to Level 2/2.5 (science-ready). There is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target, AOT, and observing plan. These 'interactive' pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.
  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the 'SPG' (Standard Product Generator) using one pipeline script flavour per AOT. Which script is used is documented in the PDRG.
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  • The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks within those scripts, with task settings that correspond to the most common type of science target for each AOT. But some pipeline tasks still can only be run via the interactive pipeline scripts, and to modify the parameter settings for the important pipeline tasks also requires you re-process the data. The Launch Pads (see below) include a guide to understanding the pipeline scripts and how to decide whether to reprocess your data and if so, with which script.
  • For a explanation of PACS products, i.e. what you get when you download a complete or part of an observation from the HSA, see the PACS Products Explained, which can also be found on the HIPE help pages.
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HIPE, data reduction documentation, and useful links for data issues

  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v13.0 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 13, build 5130. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 13 here. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
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Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The various interactive pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide in HIPE can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
  • The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 13 for photometry is provided here. The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 13 for spectroscopy is provided here. These are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. Also included is
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    • what the crucial pipeline tasks are
    • what the post-pipeline processing tasks that we provide are
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Tutorials and scripts

  • The Scripts menu in HIPE takes you to a set of PACS photometry and spectroscopy useful scripts. In HIPE 13 these are:
    • Point source aperture photometry
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    • Re-creating the standalone browse products
    • Convolution for spectral images
  • See the various walkthroughs on the NHSC PACS page.
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  • HIPE Academy on YouTube: here you can find recordings of various seminars and webinars that the HSC have given on working in HIPE, reducing Herschel data, using various tools to visualise and manipulate data in HIPE, and etc.
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Quick links: wavelengths, sensitivity, PSFs

A summary of instrumental and calibration details that a data-reducing astronomer often wants know.

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 Spectroscopy
  • Wavelength ranges, resolution, band names
    • The blue bands are B2A (blue, second order) and B2B (green, second order), and B3A (blue, third order), and in the red we have R1 (first order)
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  • Second-pass spectral ghosts: see sec. 4.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document to learn about ghosts. These are bright spectral lines at one wavelength "echoing" to another wavelength in another spaxel. This is also documented in sec. 4.9 of the PACS Observer's Manual * The footprint of the integral field unit: text and figures showing the footprint of the PACS IFU, and how that compares to the beam, can be found in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document (sec. 3) where you will also find information about the beam maps (at high spatial resolution and for various wavelengths), beam efficiencies, and the point source loss corrections. The same information can be found in the PACS Observer's Manual (sec. 4.6).
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  • Second-pass spectral ghosts: see sec. 4.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document to learn about ghosts. These are bright spectral lines at one wavelength "echoing" to another wavelength in another spaxel. This is also documented in sec. 4.9 of the PACS Observer's Manual * The footprint of the integral field unit: text and figures showing the footprint of the PACS IFU, and how that compares to the beam, can be found in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document (sec. 3) where you will also find information about the beam maps (at high spatial resolution and for various wavelengths), beam efficiencies, and the point source loss corrections. The same information can be found in the PACS Observer's Manual (sec. 4.6).
 
  • The FWHM of a point source (i.e. of the beam): this information can be found in fig. 4.12 of the PACS Observer's Manual and again in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document
  • Spectral line profile skews for off-centred sources: point sources that are not centrally located in a spaxel will show a skew to their spectral lines. The effect of this is to move the peak wavelength and slightly change the measured FWHM. Some calibration of this has been done and this can be found in sec. 4.7.2 and 4.7.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual and sec. 5.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document.
  • Calibration certainties: these are all documented in the beginning of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document. Data errors are discussed in the PACS DRG for spectroscopy (sec. 7.6 in the HIPE 13 version).
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  • PSF and beams: the beams maps are provided as FITS files, and information about then can be found in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps'
  • Point source photometry
    • Colour corrections: these are provided on this page in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps'
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  • Calibration certainty: is discussed on this page in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps'), with links there to two publications. You can also read sec 3.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual
  • Sensitivity: this depends on the AOT, this information is also provided in the AOT Release Notes, and can also be computed by running HSPOT.
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS Products Explained document (pdf)" date="1435065463" name="ppe-hipe13.pdf" path="ppe-hipe13.pdf" size="831421" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Raw measurements PACS beams - central spaxel only" date="1362764493" name="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz" path="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz" size="123836" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Mueller exp. astr. paper 2013" date="1383609091" name="ExpAstr_PrimeAsteroids_revision1.pdf" path="ExpAstr_PrimeAsteroids_revision1.pdf" size="950563" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v6.tar.gz" attr="" comment="PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies v6" date="1440067497" name="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v6.tar.gz" path="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v6.tar.gz" size="17600333" stream="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v6.tar.gz" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="PACSPSF_PICC-ME-TN-033_EEF_v2.2.tar" attr="" comment="" date="1447923081" name="PACSPSF_PICC-ME-TN-033_EEF_v2.2.tar" path="PACSPSF_PICC-ME-TN-033_EEF_v2.2.tar" size="124928" user="LucaCalzoletti" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="PACSPSF_PICC-ME-TN-033_PSFpara_v2.2.tar" attr="" comment="" date="1447930556" name="PACSPSF_PICC-ME-TN-033_PSFpara_v2.2.tar" path="PACSPSF_PICC-ME-TN-033_PSFpara_v2.2.tar" size="28669440" user="LucaCalzoletti" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="PACSPSF_PICC-ME-TN-033_PSFprime_v2.2.tar" attr="" comment="" date="1447931519" name="PACSPSF_PICC-ME-TN-033_PSFprime_v2.2.tar" path="PACSPSF_PICC-ME-TN-033_PSFprime_v2.2.tar" size="50930688" user="LucaCalzoletti" version="1"

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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PACS calibration and performance

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Data processing known issues of standard products for photometry and spectroscopy: Bulk-processed Level 2/2.5 products are provided in the Herschel Science Archive. This Data Processing Known Issues page describes typical problems and caveats the observer needs to be familiar when looking at the results of this "SPG" (standard product generation) processing. Aspects of product quality which can be further optimised by interactive processing are also summarised here. The document refers to the version of data processing pipeline currently being used for processing of incoming Herschel data.
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Data processing known issues of standard products for photometry and spectroscopy: Bulk-processed Level 2/2.5 products are provided in the Herschel Science Archive. This Data Processing Known Issues page describes typical problems and caveats the observer needs to be familiar when looking at the results of this "SPG" (standard product generation) processing. Aspects of product quality which can be further optimised by interactive processing are also summarised here. The document refers to the version of data processing pipeline currently being used for processing of incoming Herschel data.
 

Photometer calibration in scan maps

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  • Point Spread Function: PACS Photometer Point Spread function (10 Mb), version 2.2, 16 November 2015. A detailed document of the in-flight observed PSF. The accompanying tarball can be found here (76 Mb).
 
  • Herschel/PACS modelled point spread functions (3.1 Mb) is a related document presenting Zemax modelled point spread functions for both an `ideal' and an 'as built' Herschel telescope model. Tarballs with corresponding broad-band and monochromatic PSFs for these two cases are at http://pacs.ster.kuleuven.ac.be/pubtool/PSF. These are useful in addition to the observed PSFs but cannot replace them, since the models do not capture all effects found in the observed PSFs.
  • Point-source photometry: PACS uses 5 stars as primary calibrators with fluxes ranging from 0.6 to 15 Jy, plus fainter stars and asteroids as secondary calibrators. The absolute flux scale accuracy is dominated by the model uncertainties and amounts to 5% in the 3 filter bands. At the same time, the reproducibility for a given non-variable point source is better than 2% for all PACS bands. The flux calibration is described in detail in Balog et al, 2013, Experimental Astronomy and confirmed with asteroids in Müller et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy.
  • Point-source photometry in deep PACS maps/surveys: The e ffect of the high-pass fi lter data reduction technique on the PACS Photometer PSF, point-source photometry, and noise has been investigated in depth in this technical note.
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    • We refer to the paper , G. Aniano et al. (2011) for kernels and associated routines (IDL) to match spatial resolution between several infrared instruments PSFs (PACS, SPIRE, Spitzer/MIPS, Spitzer/IRAC, WISE) as well as GALEX (UV) and other PSF families (gaussian, bi-gaussian, Moffat)
 
  • Chop/nod observations:
    • Chop/nod observations were not used for scientific observations during the mission, however they were heavily used for the photometry monitoring and well as numerous observations for the pointing accuracy check/monitoring. See Nielbock et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy for the time dependent flux calibration for the PACS chopped point-source photometry AOT mode.
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Photometer map-makers

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  • Four fundamentally different map-makers are offered in HIPE 13 with interactive pipeline scripts, starting from Level 1. These map-makers are used in different ways to generate standard products ("SPG" product) provided by the Herschel Science Archive: high-pass filtering is applied to generate Level2 products, while Unimap and JScanam are used to create Level2.5 products. Level3 products are mosaics of Level2.5 products that belong to the same sky field and to the same observing program.
    • Highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are high-pass filtered to remove the 1/f noise, but at the expense of extended emission. It provides optimum sensitivity to point-sources
    • MADmap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker, that allows one to preserve extended emission at all scales. MADMap is not used anymore in the SPG processing, but it is still available as an interactive script.
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<-- This is corrected for MADmap in HIPE 12 by the task convertToFixedPixelSize() at the end of level1. The flux difference come from the fact that the mean values of the optical flat are significantly different from 1, in other words it cannot be assumed by external map-makers that the pixel sizes is constant of the field of view at 3.2"/6.4 in the blue/red channel respectively. Scanamorphos and Unimap are also affected, but not JScanam that makes use of photProject.-->
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PACS spectrometer calibration

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  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations. (Please note, this document refers to the calibration status and performance of pipeline version v8.0. An update compatible with HIPE v13 release will be provided soon.) This includes:
    • flux calibration accuracies for chop nod and unchopped observations
    • the beam efficiencies and the PACS integral field footprint
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  • Point source observations. To extract and calibrate the spectrum of a point source, it is necessary to use one of the tasks provided: it is not enough to add up the field-of-view of use the central spaxel only. How to do this is documented in the PACS DRG for spectroscopy.
  • Telescope background model: a script to compute the telescope background model calibration tables and a technical note explaining the method used can be found here. Warning: the calibration tables computed with this script are not the same as the ones in the calibration tree. See the technical note for details.
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PACS calibration file versions

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  • When starting HIPE, you will be informed if new calibration files are available. Clicking on 'show details' will show you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs. Clicking on 'Install' will install the latest calibration files.
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  • The history of the calibration files that have been released to the community is provided here: PACS Calibration File History.
  • You can inspect the release notes for the calibration sets installed on your machine from within HIPE. Open the Calibration Sets View from the menu Window -> Show Views -> Workbench.
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  • The history of the calibration files that have been released to the community is provided here: PACS Calibration File History.
  • You can inspect the release notes for the calibration sets installed on your machine from within HIPE. Open the Calibration Sets View from the menu Window -> Show Views -> Workbench.

 
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  • For a explanation of PACS products, i.e. what you get when you download a complete or part of an observation from the HSA, see the PACS Products Explained, which can also be found on the HIPE help pages.
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HIPE, data reduction documentation, and useful links for data issues

  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v13.0 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 13, build 5130. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 13 here. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
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  • The what's new in HIPE 13 page lists the changes in HIPE version 13.x with respect to the 12.x series, and provides a detailed list of updated functionalities, product changes, and calibration aspects.
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  • The what's new in HIPE 13 page lists the changes in HIPE version 13.x with respect to the 12.x series, and provides a detailed list of updated functionalities, product changes, and calibration aspects.
 
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Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

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  • The various interactive pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide in HIPE can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
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  • The various interactive pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide in HIPE can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
 
  • The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 13 for photometry is provided here. The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 13 for spectroscopy is provided here. These are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. Also included is
    • why we recommend you do re-pipeline your data
    • what you need to pay attention to for different types of astronomical source
    • what the crucial pipeline tasks are
    • what the post-pipeline processing tasks that we provide are
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Tutorials and scripts

  • The Scripts menu in HIPE takes you to a set of PACS photometry and spectroscopy useful scripts. In HIPE 13 these are:
    • Point source aperture photometry
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  PACS Data Processing Tutorials.
  • HIPE Academy on YouTube: here you can find recordings of various seminars and webinars that the HSC have given on working in HIPE, reducing Herschel data, using various tools to visualise and manipulate data in HIPE, and etc.

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Quick links: wavelengths, sensitivity, PSFs

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 A summary of instrumental and calibration details that a data-reducing astronomer often wants know.

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 Spectroscopy
  • Wavelength ranges, resolution, band names
    • The blue bands are B2A (blue, second order) and B2B (green, second order), and B3A (blue, third order), and in the red we have R1 (first order)
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  For more information about the standard and the standalone browse cubes provided for PACS spectroscopy, see the PACS Products Explained HIPE help document (which is also linked as a PDF file in the Data Reduction section).
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Important message about Unimap maps in HIPE 13

Some Unimap maps show overshooting effects around very bright sources that are surrounded by a diffuse and relatively faint background. See, as an example, the blue image of NGC253 (obsID: 1342221743). This effect is due to a not optimised convergence of the GLS algorithm and it will be corrected in HIPE/SPG14.
 

Observing with PACS

  • The PACS Observer's Manual HTML PDF (11 Mb), version 2.3, 8-June-2011 : the first thing to read before applying for time with PACS (or even before working on PACS data for the first time), as it tells you how the instrument works. This includes:
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="The bandwidth of the PACS photometric system" date="1368111703" name="PICC-CR-TN-044.pdf" path="PICC-CR-TN-044.pdf" size="301271" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Nielbock et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy" date="1394554775" name="Nielbock_ExpAstr_2013.pdf" path="Nielbock_ExpAstr_2013.pdf" size="1499623" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PDRG Spectroscopy from May 2012" date="1337955024" name="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" path="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" size="2554752" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Mueller exp. astr. paper 2013" date="1383609091" name="ExpAstr_PrimeAsteroids_revision1.pdf" path="ExpAstr_PrimeAsteroids_revision1.pdf" size="950563" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS Map-making Tools: Update on Analysis and Benchmarking" date="1406677684" name="pacs_mapmaking_report14_v2.pdf" path="pacs_mapmaking_report14_v2.pdf" size="2878552" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS photometer point spread function, v2.0" date="1334076050" name="bolopsf_20.pdf" path="bolopsf_20.pdf" size="9866553" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Spectroscopy" date="1337956107" name="PACS_LaunchPads_May2012_S.pdf" path="PACS_LaunchPads_May2012_S.pdf" size="140968" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1428586131" name="pacs_specLP_Hipe13.pdf" path="pacs_specLP_Hipe13.pdf" size="1614292" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="pacs sepctrometer PDRG Hipe 10" date="1358867586" name="pacs_spec.pdf" path="pacs_spec.pdf" size="2933139" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
 
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PPR Jun 2011" date="1307485983" name="PPR_Jun2011.pdf" path="PPR_Jun2011.pdf" size="4442087" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies v4" date="1400775832" name="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v4.tar.gz" path="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v4.tar.gz" size="14320104" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="File containing the script and the data files needed to compute the telescope background model calibration tables. A technical note is also included." date="1436879215" name="telescopeBackgroundInHipe.tar.gz" path="telescopeBackgroundInHipe.tar.gz" size="378032" user="Main.ChristopheJean" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1302633049" name="cc_report_v1.pdf" path="cc_report_v1.pdf" size="2640608" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PDRG Track 8.0 RC6" date="1323252325" name="PDRG_Dec2011.pdf" path="PDRG_Dec2011.pdf" size="6815245" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS photometer PDRG Hipe 10" date="1358867613" name="pacs_phot.pdf" path="pacs_phot.pdf" size="4782317" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS Spectrometer beams" date="1310684886" name="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v1.tar.gz" path="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v1.tar.gz" size="87776" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PDRG Jun 2011" date="1307485675" name="PDRG_Jun2011.pdf" path="PDRG_Jun2011.pdf" size="5474316" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS Spectrometer Data Reduction Guide for Hipe 12" date="1395133177" name="pacs_spec_Hipe12.pdf" path="pacs_spec_Hipe12.pdf" size="2606769" user="Main.ElenaPuga" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Raw measurements PACS beams - all spaxels" date="1362764619" name="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_tables_v1.tar.gz" path="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_tables_v1.tar.gz" size="2808129" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1307021295" name="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_31May2011.pdf" path="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_31May2011.pdf" size="2385315" user="Main.JeanMatagne" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Balog exp. astr. paper 2013" date="1383609044" name="balog_PACS_Phot_ADS.pdf" path="balog_PACS_Phot_ADS.pdf" size="442907" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1302633033" name="PICC-NHSC-TN-029.pdf" path="PICC-NHSC-TN-029.pdf" size="999084" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies v3" date="1362496018" name="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v3.tar.gz" path="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v3.tar.gz" size="17692949" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spec DRG track 11" date="1380536743" name="PACS_Spec_DRG_0613b.pdf" path="PACS_Spec_DRG_0613b.pdf" size="3187170" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
 
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="mapmaking report" date="1383608954" name="pacs_mapmaking_report_ex_sum_v3.pdf" path="pacs_mapmaking_report_ex_sum_v3.pdf" size="10016210" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS photometer PDRG Hipe 11" date="1375089947" name="pacs_phot_June2013.pdf" path="pacs_phot_June2013.pdf" size="5261523" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Mueller et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy" date="1394559561" name="Mueller_ExpAstr_2013.pdf" path="Mueller_ExpAstr_2013.pdf" size="1548553" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Effect of high-pass filtering" date="1352916383" name="hpf_psf_tn_final.pdf" path="hpf_psf_tn_final.pdf" size="6648430" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="2"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Balog et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy" date="1394559586" name="Balog_ExpAstr_2013.pdf" path="Balog_ExpAstr_2013.pdf" size="579993" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="The bandwidth of the PACS photometric system" date="1368111703" name="PICC-CR-TN-044.pdf" path="PICC-CR-TN-044.pdf" size="301271" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Nielbock et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy" date="1394554775" name="Nielbock_ExpAstr_2013.pdf" path="Nielbock_ExpAstr_2013.pdf" size="1499623" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer performance and calibration document, v2.4" date="1308306479" name="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" path="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" size="2106022" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="telescopeBackgroundInHipe.tar.gz" attr="" comment="File containing the script and the data files needed to compute the telescope background model calibration tables. A technical note is also included." date="1436879215" name="telescopeBackgroundInHipe.tar.gz" path="telescopeBackgroundInHipe.tar.gz" size="378032" stream="telescopeBackgroundInHipe.tar.gz" user="Main.ChristopheJean" version="1"

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    • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_tables_v1.tar.gz: Raw measurements PACS beams - all spaxels, coarse raster measurements only: each fits files corresponds to one wavelength. Each file contains the data for all spaxels of the coarse raster measurement only. Each fits file holds an array of 3x25x25x25 where: (0,25,25,25)=y raster position, (1,25,25,25)=z raster position, (2,25,25,25)=flux normalized to the central spaxel. The second and third dimensions are the raster position indices (y and z) and the last dimension is the module number (=spaxel number).
  • Point source observations. To extract and calibrate the spectrum of a point source, it is necessary to use one of the tasks provided: it is not enough to add up the field-of-view of use the central spaxel only. How to do this is documented in the PACS DRG for spectroscopy.
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  • Telescope background model: a script to compute the telescope background model calibration tables and a technical note explaining the method used can be found here. Warning: the calibration tables computed with this script are not the same as the ones in the calibration tree. See the technical note for details.
 

PACS calibration file versions

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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="The bandwidth of the PACS photometric system" date="1368111703" name="PICC-CR-TN-044.pdf" path="PICC-CR-TN-044.pdf" size="301271" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Nielbock et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy" date="1394554775" name="Nielbock_ExpAstr_2013.pdf" path="Nielbock_ExpAstr_2013.pdf" size="1499623" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer performance and calibration document, v2.4" date="1308306479" name="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" path="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" size="2106022" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="telescopeBackgroundInHipe.tar.gz" attr="" comment="File containing the script and the data files needed to compute the telescope background model calibration tables. A technical note is also included." date="1436879215" name="telescopeBackgroundInHipe.tar.gz" path="telescopeBackgroundInHipe.tar.gz" size="378032" stream="telescopeBackgroundInHipe.tar.gz" user="Main.ChristopheJean" version="1"

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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  You can also consult the PACS NHSC homepage.

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Important message about drizzled cubes in HIPE 13

Due to an oversight in the pipeline scripts of HIPE 13, the drizzled cubes you get for chop-nod line scan observations created by "SPG 13" will have incorrect fluxes. Therefore you should not use the drizzled cubes downloaded from the HSA if the Meta datum "creator" is "SPG 13.0", whether they are within the ObservationContext at Level 2, or part of a Standalone Browse Product download. Any drizzled cubes created for unchopped mode observations will be unaffected. For chop-nod range scan observations, drizzled cubes are not created by the SPG 13 pipeline anyway. This oversight will be corrected in HIPE/SPG 14.

For the affected observations you have the following alternatives:

  • Use the projected cubes instead, which you will also find within the ObservationContext at Level 2, but which are not part of the Standalone Browse Product download for the affected observations.
  • Run one of the interactive pipeline scripts to create the drizzled cubes yourself. Contact the Herschel Helpdesk first to ask for an updated pipeline script to do this, since the interactive pipeline scripts in HIPE 13 (and 12) also contain the mistake.

For Your Information: Drizzled cubes FITS files, and their name as listed in an ObservationContext, are: HPS3DD[R|B] (red and blue) Standalone browse product drizzled cube FITS files, and their name as listed in an ObservationContext in the browse product section are: HPS3DEQ[R|B] (red and blue, equidistant wavelength grid version of the drizzled cubes). Projected cubes have the name: HPS3DP[R|B].

For more information about the standard and the standalone browse cubes provided for PACS spectroscopy, see the PACS Products Explained HIPE help document (which is also linked as a PDF file in the Data Reduction section).

 

Observing with PACS

  • The PACS Observer's Manual HTML PDF (11 Mb), version 2.3, 8-June-2011 : the first thing to read before applying for time with PACS (or even before working on PACS data for the first time), as it tells you how the instrument works. This includes:
    • A description of the layout and the components of the PACS photometer and spectrometer
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  • PACS data are reduced with pipeline scripts which are a set of command-line tasks that process the data from Level 0 (raw) to Level 2/2.5 (science-ready). There is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target, AOT, and observing plan. These 'interactive' pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.
  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the 'SPG' (Standard Product Generator) using one pipeline script flavour per AOT. Which script is used is documented in the PDRG.
  • The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks within those scripts, with task settings that correspond to the most common type of science target for each AOT. But some pipeline tasks still can only be run via the interactive pipeline scripts, and to modify the parameter settings for the important pipeline tasks also requires you re-process the data. The Launch Pads (see below) include a guide to understanding the pipeline scripts and how to decide whether to reprocess your data and if so, with which script.
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  • For a explanation of PACS products, i.e. what you get when you download a complete or part of an observation from the HSA, see the PACS Products Explained, which can also be found on the HIPE help pages.
 

HIPE, data reduction documentation, and useful links for data issues

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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS Products Explained document (pdf)" date="1435065463" name="ppe-hipe13.pdf" path="ppe-hipe13.pdf" size="831421" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Raw measurements PACS beams - central spaxel only" date="1362764493" name="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz" path="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz" size="123836" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PDRG Spectroscopy from May 2012" date="1337955024" name="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" path="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" size="2554752" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Mueller exp. astr. paper 2013" date="1383609091" name="ExpAstr_PrimeAsteroids_revision1.pdf" path="ExpAstr_PrimeAsteroids_revision1.pdf" size="950563" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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Photometer calibration in scan maps

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  • Herschel/PACS modelled point spread functions (3.1 Mb) is a related document presenting Zemax modelled point spread functions for both an `ideal' and an 'as built' Herschel telescope model. Tarballs with corresponding broad-band and monochromatic PSFs for these two cases are at http://pacs.ster.kuleuven.ac.be/pubtool/PSF. These are useful in addition to the observed PSFs but cannot replace them, since the models do not capture all effects found in the observed PSFs.
  • Point-source photometry: PACS uses 5 stars as primary calibrators with fluxes ranging from 0.6 to 15 Jy, plus fainter stars and asteroids as secondary calibrators. The absolute flux scale accuracy is dominated by the model uncertainties and amounts to 5% in the 3 filter bands. At the same time, the reproducibility for a given non-variable point source is better than 2% for all PACS bands. The flux calibration is described in detail in Balog et al, 2013, Experimental Astronomy and confirmed with asteroids in Müller et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy.
  • Point-source photometry in deep PACS maps/surveys: The e ffect of the high-pass fi lter data reduction technique on the PACS Photometer PSF, point-source photometry, and noise has been investigated in depth in this technical note.
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS Map-making Tools: Update on Analysis and Benchmarking" date="1406677684" name="pacs_mapmaking_report14_v2.pdf" path="pacs_mapmaking_report14_v2.pdf" size="2878552" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1288887824" name="aa14535-10.pdf" path="aa14535-10.pdf" size="1608742" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS Data Redction Guide for Hipe 12" date="1395078644" name="pacs_phot_Hipe12.pdf" path="pacs_phot_Hipe12.pdf" size="5257340" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS photometer point spread function, v2.1" date="1433799725" name="bolopsf_21.pdf" path="bolopsf_21.pdf" size="9999938" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1288974438" name="bolopsfv1.01.pdf" path="bolopsfv1.01.pdf" size="5794753" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies v5" date="1401288155" name="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v5.tar.gz" path="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v5.tar.gz" size="17708798" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS photometer point spread function, v2.0" date="1334076050" name="bolopsf_20.pdf" path="bolopsf_20.pdf" size="9866553" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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Introduction

This page provides up-to-date information, documents, reports, and links about the PACS instrument, from preparing observations, through reducing and calibrating PACS observations, to working with PACS maps and cubes.

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You can also consult the PACS NHSC homepage.

 

Observing with PACS

  • The PACS Observer's Manual HTML PDF (11 Mb), version 2.3, 8-June-2011 : the first thing to read before applying for time with PACS (or even before working on PACS data for the first time), as it tells you how the instrument works. This includes:
    • A description of the layout and the components of the PACS photometer and spectrometer
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    • Information about how the various standard observing blocks work
    • Summaries of transmission functions, sensitivity, etc. for use in your observing planning (similar to what you will find in the Observer's Manual)
    • Here you can also find the various acronyms that are used elsewhere in PACS documentation
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  Although we are now in the post-operations phase of the mission, the PACS OM and the AOT release notes can still be useful to read for a background understanding on how PACS data were gathered
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PACS calibration and performance

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  • Data processing known issues of standard products for photometry and spectroscopy: Browse quality Level 2/2.5 products are provided in the Herschel Science Archive. This summary page describes typical problems and caveats the observer needs to be familiar when looking at these preview products. Aspects of product quality which can be further optimised by interactive processing are also summarised here. The document refers to the version of data processing pipeline currently being used for processing of incoming Herschel data (version number provided therein).
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Data processing known issues of standard products for photometry and spectroscopy: Bulk-processed Level 2/2.5 products are provided in the Herschel Science Archive. This Data Processing Known Issues page describes typical problems and caveats the observer needs to be familiar when looking at the results of this "SPG" (standard product generation) processing. Aspects of product quality which can be further optimised by interactive processing are also summarised here. The document refers to the version of data processing pipeline currently being used for processing of incoming Herschel data.
 

Photometer calibration in scan maps

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  • Herschel/PACS modelled point spread functions (3.1 Mb) is a related document presenting Zemax modelled point spread functions for both an `ideal' and an 'as built' Herschel telescope model. Tarballs with corresponding broad-band and monochromatic PSFs for these two cases are at http://pacs.ster.kuleuven.ac.be/pubtool/PSF. These are useful in addition to the observed PSFs but cannot replace them, since the models do not capture all effects found in the observed PSFs.
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<--A new responsivity calibration (version) is deployed on the HCSS 7 track (this is explained in the internal report PICC-ME-TN-033 v1.01, where the associated encircled energy fraction [EEF] is given). This improves the accuracy of photometry to 3% in the blue channel and 5% in the red channel. -->

 
  • Point-source photometry: PACS uses 5 stars as primary calibrators with fluxes ranging from 0.6 to 15 Jy, plus fainter stars and asteroids as secondary calibrators. The absolute flux scale accuracy is dominated by the model uncertainties and amounts to 5% in the 3 filter bands. At the same time, the reproducibility for a given non-variable point source is better than 2% for all PACS bands. The flux calibration is described in detail in Balog et al, 2013, Experimental Astronomy and confirmed with asteroids in Müller et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy.
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"PACS photometer point-source flux calibration (3.1 Mb) (PICC-ME-TN-037), version 1.0, 12 April 2011.
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  • Point-source photometry in deep PACS maps/surveys: The e ffect of the high-pass fi lter data reduction technique on the PACS Photometer PSF, point-source photometry, and noise has been investigated in depth in this technical note.
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    • Chop/nod observations were not used for scientific observations during the mission, however they were heavily used for the photometry monitoring and well as numerous observations for the pointing accuracy check/monitoring. See Nielbock et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy for the time dependent flux calibration for the PACS chopped point-source photometry AOT mode.

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Photometer map-makers

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Three fundamentally different map-makers are offered in Hipe 12 with ipipe scripts, starting from level 1 on pairs of obsids :
  • highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are highpass filtered to remove the 1/f noise at the expense of extended emission. It provides optimum sensitivity to point-sources
  • MADmap, a GLS (generalized least square) map-maker, that allows to preserve extended emission at all scale
  • JyScanam, a Java-version of the IDL Scanamorphos map-maker

Another two public map-makers, also starting from level 1, widely used and both very easy to use are :

  • Scanamorphos, an IDL map-maker from Hélène Roussel (IAP) with an advanced and powerful destriper for PACS maps
  • Unimap a light (memory wise) GLS map-maker from Lorenzo Piazzo ('La Sapienza' University of Rome ) under a free Matlab runtime environment, with an advanced pre-processing (drift correction, jump detection) and post-processing stages (bright sources)

A report of the map-making working group compiled by Roberta Paladini is available: PACS map-making tools: analysis and benchmarking, 1 Nov. 2013.

An updated version of that report concentrating on JScanam, MADmap and Unimap in their latest versions is available in PACS Map-making Tools: Update on Analysis and Benchmarking, 30 March 2014.

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  • Four fundamentally different map-makers are offered in HIPE 13 with interactive pipeline scripts, starting from Level 1. These map-makers are used in different ways to generate standard products ("SPG" product) provided by the Herschel Science Archive: high-pass filtering is applied to generate Level2 products, while Unimap and JScanam are used to create Level2.5 products. Level3 products are mosaics of Level2.5 products that belong to the same sky field and to the same observing program.
    • Highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are high-pass filtered to remove the 1/f noise, but at the expense of extended emission. It provides optimum sensitivity to point-sources
    • MADmap, a GLS (generalised least square) map-maker, that allows one to preserve extended emission at all scales. MADMap is not used anymore in the SPG processing, but it is still available as an interactive script.
    • Unimap, a light (memory-wise) GLS map-maker from Lorenzo Piazzo ('La Sapienza' University of Rome) under a free Matlab runtime environment, with advanced pre-processing (drift correction, jump detection) and post-processing stages (bright sources). The runUnimap task is used to invoke the Unimap Matlab routine on the users's computer.
    • JScanam, a Java-version of the IDL Scanamorphos map-maker, an IDL map-maker from Hélène Roussel (IAP) with an advanced and powerful destriper for PACS maps.
  • A report of the map-making working group compiled by Roberta Paladini is available: PACS map-making tools: analysis and benchmarking, 1 Nov. 2013.
  • An updated version of that report, concentrating on JScanam, MADmap and Unimap in their latest versions is available: PACS map-making tools: analysis and benchmarking, 30 March 2014.
  • If you are using data with SPG v 12 or reducing data with HIPE 12, remember that the optical field distortion in not applied at level 1. As a result, external map-makers starting from level 1 have a systematic flux overestimate of 6-7% in the red channel and a lower underestimate (~2%) in the blue channel of the flux scale.
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The optical field distortion is not applied in level 1, as this calibration is applied by the native photProject task. As a result, external map-makers starting from level 1 have a systematic flux overestimate of 6-7% in the red channel and a lower underestimate (~2%) in the blue channel of the flux scale. This is corrected for MADmap in Hipe12 by introducing the new task convertToFixedPixelSize() at the end of level1. The flux difference come from the fact that the mean values of the optical flat are significantly different from 1, in other words it cannot be assumed by external map-makers that the pixel sizes is constant of the field of view at 3.2"/6.4 in the blue/red channel respectively.

Scanamorphos and Unimap are also affected, but not JScanam that makes use of photProject.

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PACS spectrometer calibration

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  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations. (Please note, this document refers to the calibration status and performance of pipeline version v8.0. An update compatible with HIPE v12.1 release will be provided soon.) This includes:
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  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations. (Please note, this document refers to the calibration status and performance of pipeline version v8.0. An update compatible with HIPE v13 release will be provided soon.) This includes:
 
    • flux calibration accuracies for chop nod and unchopped observations
    • the beam efficiencies and the PACS integral field footprint
    • spectral leakages and ghosts
    • wavelength calibration, including information on a skew our native line profile develops as a point source moves off the centre of a spaxel
    • table of the point source correction factors for different wavelengths
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  • The calibration of the spectrometer is based on repeated measurements of planets, asteroids, and stars. The RMS scatter of these measurements are just over 10% within any spectral band, about the same when comparing different spaxels, and similar (but higher in the red) when looking for broad-band features within any band. These calibration certainties are independent, and should be combined when quoting errors in science papers. Read the above-mentioned document for the most up-to-date information.

  • PACS spectrometer beams, version 3, can be downloaded here: PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v3.tar.gz. These beams are based on measurements of a raster with step size 2.5" around Neptune. These beams are useful to compare the flux seen in the different IFU spaxels with with a point source, or a certain brightness distribution in the sky. Version 3 has the beam effiencies for all IFU spaxels, and has a drastic improvement wrt version 2 since the spacecraft pointing was reconstructed more accurately. This resulted in a non-equidistant sampling of the beam efficiency in the sky. The beam products offered are equidistantly sampled on a grid of 0.5 arcseconds. The central part of the beam is the Gaussian fit to the measured beam efficiencies. This has been verified to be a very good description on the different raster observations we have of the central spaxels for wavelengths longer than 80 micron. Below 80 micron, the actual beam shows the square detector footprint, and the Gaussian approximation in the beam products v3 overpredicts the real beam efficiency by 1.5 to 2 percent. The outer part of the beams contains the interpolated values of the irregularly sampled measurements. Thanks to the improved data reduction quality, version 3 of the spectrometer beams are sharper than version 2, and shows the ghosts (see also the PACS spectrometer calibration document) more clearly, as well as the three-lobe structure of the Herschel telescope PSF. Each beam is normalised to the fitted peak value of the central spaxel. The WCS associated with the beam is in sky coordinates for position angle 0.
  • The raw data from which the PACS spectrometer beams above have been derived, is also made available to the users in tables (y, z offset - signal):
    • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz: Raw measurements PACS beams - central spaxel only. This contains a fits file for each wavelength measured for the CENTRAL SPAXEL only. Raw data of the coarse and fine rasters are combined. The array dimension of the fits file is [3,npoints] where the first column gives the y raster position, the 2nd column the z raster position and the 3rd column the normalised flux measured at this raster position.
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  • The calibration of the spectrometer is based on repeated measurements of planets, asteroids, and stars. The RMS scatter of these measurements are just over 10% within any spectral band, about the same when comparing different spaxels, and similar (but higher in the red) when looking for broad-band features within any band. See the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document for the exact numbers. These calibration certainties are independent, and should be combined when quoting calibration errors.
  • An explanation of the data errors for any particular observation is provided in the PACS Data Reduction Guide for spectroscopy (sec. 7.6 in the HIPE 13 version of the document)
  • PACS spectrometer beams, version 3, can be downloaded here: PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v3.tar.gz. These beams are based on measurements of a raster with step size 2.5" around Neptune. These beam maps are useful e.g. if you want to compare to the flux distribution of your observation of a point source. Version 3 has the beam efficiencies for all IFU spaxels, and is a drastic improvement wrt version 2 as the spacecraft pointing was reconstructed more accurately. This reconstruction resulted in a non-equidistant sampling of the beam efficiency in the sky, but the beam products offered are equidistantly-sampled on a grid of 0.5 arcseconds. Each beam is normalised to the fitted peak value of the central spaxel. The WCS associated with the beam is in sky coordinates for position angle 0. The central part of the beam is the Gaussian fit to the measured beam efficiencies. This has been verified to be a very good description on the different raster observations we have of the central spaxels for wavelengths longer than 80 micron. Below 80 micron, the actual beam shows the square detector footprint, and the Gaussian approximation in the beam products v3 over-predicts the real beam efficiency by 1.5 to 2 percent. The outer part of the beams contains the interpolated values of the irregularly sampled measurements. Version 3 of the spectrometer beams are sharper than version 2, and shows the ghosts (ghosts are discussed in the Spectrometer Calibration Document ) more clearly, as well as the three-lobe structure of the Herschel telescope PSF.
  • The raw data from which the PACS spectrometer beams (all versions) have been derived is also available as tables (y, z offset - signal):
    • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz:This contains a FITS file for each wavelength measured for the central spaxel only. Raw data of the coarse and fine rasters are combined. The array dimension of the fits file is [3,npoints] where the first column gives the y raster position, the 2nd column the z raster position and the 3rd column the normalised flux measured at this raster position.
 
    • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_tables_v1.tar.gz: Raw measurements PACS beams - all spaxels, coarse raster measurements only: each fits files corresponds to one wavelength. Each file contains the data for all spaxels of the coarse raster measurement only. Each fits file holds an array of 3x25x25x25 where: (0,25,25,25)=y raster position, (1,25,25,25)=z raster position, (2,25,25,25)=flux normalized to the central spaxel. The second and third dimensions are the raster position indices (y and z) and the last dimension is the module number (=spaxel number).
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  • Point source observations. We provide a task at the end of the pipeline scripts to extract the spectrum of point sources, corrected for flux losses due to the PSF being larger than the spaxel size, and including a correction for flux losses due to small pointing offsets from the centre of the the central spaxel and pointing jitter. This task (extractCentralSpectrum) is used on cubes of a single pointing (i.e. not those created from combine several raster pointings) and must be run in order to correctly extract the spectrum of point sources. This task uses the beams we refer to above. The pros and cons and how and when to use the task are documented in the spectrometer PDRG (in the pipeline chapters and again in chap. 7).
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  • Point source observations. To extract and calibrate the spectrum of a point source, it is necessary to use one of the tasks provided: it is not enough to add up the field-of-view of use the central spaxel only. How to do this is documented in the PACS DRG for spectroscopy.
 

PACS calibration file versions

  • When starting HIPE, you will be informed if new calibration files are available. Clicking on 'show details' will show
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you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs (chap. 2). Clicking on 'Install' will install the latest calibration files.
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you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs. Clicking on 'Install' will install the latest calibration files.
 
  • The history of the calibration files that have been released to the community is provided here: PACS Calibration File History.
  • You can inspect the release notes for the calibration sets installed on your machine from within HIPE. Open the Calibration Sets View from the menu Window -> Show Views -> Workbench.
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  • When reducing your data in HIPE you will normally use the latest version of the calibration tree that you have on disk (this happens by default), but you can chose to use a previous version instead. How to do this is explained in the PDRGs.
 
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HIPE, data reduction documentation, and useful links for data issues

  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v13.0 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 13, build 5130. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.
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  • The what's new in HIPE 13 page lists the changes in HIPE version 13.x with respect to the 12.x series, and provides a detailed list of updated functionalities, product changes, and calibration aspects.
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  • The Data products known issues page details issues about the pipelines or the data products that are known about and offers advice for dealing with them. Consult this if you encounter problems with your data to see if it has already been addressed.
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Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

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    • what you need to pay attention to for different types of astronomical source
    • what the crucial pipeline tasks are
    • what the post-pipeline processing tasks that we provide are
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Tutorials and scripts

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  • The Scripts menu in HIPE takes you to a set of PACS photometry and spectroscopy useful scripts. In HIPE 13 these are:
    • Point source aperture photometry
    • Multiple point source aperture photometry
    • Image convolution (photometry)
    • Combine PACS and SPIRE point source spectra
    • Point source corrections: for a source located in the central spaxel of the field-of-view, and for a source located elsewhere
    • Post-processing tasks for extended sources
    • Off subtraction and post-processing for unchopped range spectroscopy
    • Fitting mapping observations: for mosaic cubes and on the pre-mosaic cubes
    • Fitting single pointing cubes
    • Re-creating the standalone browse products
    • Convolution for spectral images
 
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  • HIPE Academy on YouTube: here you can find recordings of various seminars and webinars that the HSC have given on working in HIPE, reducing Herschel data, using various tools to visualise and manipulate data in HIPE, and etc.
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  • In HIPE there is a Scripts menu in which you can find various "useful scripts" for working with PACS data in HIPE. For example, for spectroscopy there is a script showing how to fit the spectra in cubes and make integrated flux images from them; for photometry we show how to do point source aperture photometry. These are written as scripts which you can open in HIPE and run on a test dataset, and in most cases you can replace the test dataset with your own and take it from there. Please do note that these scripts do not explain how to use the GUI version of the tasks - for this you need to read the PDRGs or the general Data Reduction Guide.

A summary of the PACS instrument for an astronomer

Here we provide a summary of instrumental and calibration details that a data-reducing astronomer often wants know. The summary provides a set of links or information about where to find the information.
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Quick links: wavelengths, sensitivity, PSFs

A summary of instrumental and calibration details that a data-reducing astronomer often wants know.
  Spectroscopy
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  • Wavelength ranges and limits, band names
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  • Wavelength ranges, resolution, band names
 
    • The blue bands are B2A (blue, second order) and B2B (green, second order), and B3A (blue, third order), and in the red we have R1 (first order)
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    • The wavelength ranges and resolutions can be found in Table 4.1 of the PACS Observer's Manual (here for the HTML version)
  • The footprint of the integral field unit: text and figures showing the footprint of the PACS IFU, and how that compares to the beam, can be found in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) (sec. 3) where you will also find information about the beam maps (at high spatial resolution and for various wavelengths), beam efficiencies, and the point source loss corrections. This is mentioned again in the 'PACS spectrometer calibration' section below. The same information can be found in the PACS Observer's Manual (sec. 4.6)
  • The spatial FWHM of a point source: this information can be found in fig. 4.12 of the PACS Observer's Manual and again in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document
  • Spectral leaks: there is order leakage in our filters that affects the ends of the blue and red bands. These are documented as figures in sec. 4.1 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document and again in sec. 4.8 of the PACS Observer's Manual . Dealing with this leakage by reducing the data with a particular calibration file is documented in the PACS spectrometer data reduction guide (in the pipeline chapters where the flatfielding task is discussed, and sec. 3.7)
  • Ghosts: see sec. 4.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document to learn about ghosts - echos of spectral lines from one wavelength to another from one spaxel to another. This is also documented in sec. 4.9 of the PACS Observer's Manual
  • Skews for off-centred sources: point sources that are not centrally located in a spaxel will show a skew to their spectral lines (although if the lines are faint this may not be obvious). Some calibration of this has been done and this can be found in sec. 4.7.2 and 4.7.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual and sec. 5.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document. Some more information concerning how to tell whether your source's offset should lead to a skew can be found in the PACS spectrometer data reduction guide, sec. 7.5
  • Calibration certainties: these are all documented in the beginning of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document
  • Names of the AOTs and what they mean: can be found in the AOT Release Notes
  • Expected signal-to-noise ratios and line sensitivity: this depends on the AOT, this information is also provided in the AOT Release Notes
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  • Second-pass spectral ghosts: see sec. 4.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document to learn about ghosts. These are bright spectral lines at one wavelength "echoing" to another wavelength in another spaxel. This is also documented in sec. 4.9 of the PACS Observer's Manual * The footprint of the integral field unit: text and figures showing the footprint of the PACS IFU, and how that compares to the beam, can be found in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document (sec. 3) where you will also find information about the beam maps (at high spatial resolution and for various wavelengths), beam efficiencies, and the point source loss corrections. The same information can be found in the PACS Observer's Manual (sec. 4.6).
  • The FWHM of a point source (i.e. of the beam): this information can be found in fig. 4.12 of the PACS Observer's Manual and again in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document
  • Spectral line profile skews for off-centred sources: point sources that are not centrally located in a spaxel will show a skew to their spectral lines. The effect of this is to move the peak wavelength and slightly change the measured FWHM. Some calibration of this has been done and this can be found in sec. 4.7.2 and 4.7.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual and sec. 5.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document.
  • Calibration certainties: these are all documented in the beginning of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document. Data errors are discussed in the PACS DRG for spectroscopy (sec. 7.6 in the HIPE 13 version).
  • Expected signal-to-noise ratios and line sensitivity: this depends on the AOT, this information is also provided in the AOT Release Notes (see also update in sec. 6.1.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual) and can also be computed by running HSPOT.
  Photometry
  • Filters and bands
    • The blue and green bands are not observed simultaneously, the red is observed simultaneously with each. Transmission functions can be found in the PACS Observer's Manual sec. 3.2.
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  • PSF and beams: the beams maps as FITS files, and information about then can be found below in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps'
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  • PSF and beams: the beams maps are provided as FITS files, and information about then can be found in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps'
 
  • Point source photometry
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    • Colour corrections: these are provided below in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps'
    • Aperture corrections/eefs (encircled energy fractions) are provided in sec. 8 of the PACS Photometer Point Spread function document
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    • Colour corrections: these are provided on this page in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps'
    • Aperture corrections/EEFs (encircled energy fractions) are provided in sec. 8 of the PACS Photometer Point Spread function document
 
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  • Calibration certainty: is discussed below in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps' (item 'Point-source photometry'), with links there to two publications. You can also read sec 3.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual
  • Names of the AOTs and what they mean: can be found in the AOT Release Notes
  • Sensitivity: this depends on the AOT, this information is also provided in the AOT Release Notes

Planned processing and calibration improvements

  • The PACS ICC and the HSC calibration scientist teams are currently working on making the following processing and calibration improvements available to the users:
    • Making spectrometer convolution kernels available. These products will be useful to estimate line-ratios in oversampled spectral maps.
    • Improved a-posteriori pointing reconstruction based on guide star positions used for the observation and the gyroscope raw output.
    • Improved correction for systematics affecting the spectral shape of sources and detectability of unresolved lines.

Links

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  • Calibration certainty: is discussed on this page in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps'), with links there to two publications. You can also read sec 3.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual
  • Sensitivity: this depends on the AOT, this information is also provided in the AOT Release Notes, and can also be computed by running HSPOT.
 
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Raw measurements PACS beams - central spaxel only" date="1362764493" name="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz" path="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz" size="123836" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PDRG Spectroscopy from May 2012" date="1337955024" name="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" path="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" size="2554752" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

Introduction

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This page provides up-to-date information about using the PACS instrument: from preparing observations to reducing your data. This includes information on the PACS instrument, PACS data, reducing PACS data in HIPE, and post-pipeline processing, and links to tutorials and scripts that you can run in HIPE. The calibration accuracies and technical information about the spectrometer and photometer of PACS are also provided here, as well as information about what future calibration and processing improvements can be expected.
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This page provides up-to-date information, documents, reports, and links about the PACS instrument, from preparing observations, through reducing and calibrating PACS observations, to working with PACS maps and cubes.
 

Observing with PACS

  • The PACS Observer's Manual HTML PDF (11 Mb), version 2.3, 8-June-2011 : the first thing to read before applying for time with PACS (or even before working on PACS data for the first time), as it tells you how the instrument works. This includes:
    • A description of the layout and the components of the PACS photometer and spectrometer
    • A description of the scientific capabilities of the instrument: spectral response functions, sensitivity values, point spread functions, astrometric accuracy, flux calibration information
    • A description of the standard observing templates used to set up PACS observations; here you can also find the various acronyms that are used in the PACS data reduction guides
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    • A brief description of PACS data products (although much more detail is provided in the appendices of the PACS data reduction guides)
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    • A brief description of PACS data products
 
  • AOT Release Notes: dedicated release notes per AOT (the astronomer's observing template, i.e. the observing time planning).
    • Information about how the various standard observing blocks work
    • Summaries of transmission functions, sensitivity, etc. for use in your observing planning (similar to what you will find in the Observer's Manual)
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    • Here you can also find the various acronyms that are used in the PACS data reduction guides
    • We are now at the end of the mission. But these release notes can still be useful to read for a background understanding on how PACS data were gathered - this dictates what you will see as you look at your PACS data while pipeline processing them
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    • Here you can also find the various acronyms that are used elsewhere in PACS documentation
 
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Although we are now in the post-operations phase of the mission, the PACS OM and the AOT release notes can still be useful to read for a background understanding on how PACS data were gathered
 
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A summary of the PACS instrument for an astronomer

Here we provide a summary of instrumental and calibration details that a data-reducing astronomer often wants know. The summary provides a set of links or information about where to find the information.

Spectroscopy

  • Wavelength ranges and limits, band names
    • The blue bands are B2A (blue, second order) and B2B (green, second order), and B3A (blue, third order), and in the red we have R1 (first order)
    • The wavelength ranges and resolutions can be found in Table 4.1 of the PACS Observer's Manual (here for the HTML version)
  • The footprint of the integral field unit: text and figures showing the footprint of the PACS IFU, and how that compares to the beam, can be found in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) (sec. 3) where you will also find information about the beam maps (at high spatial resolution and for various wavelengths), beam efficiencies, and the point source loss corrections. This is mentioned again in the 'PACS spectrometer calibration' section below. The same information can be found in the PACS Observer's Manual (sec. 4.6)
  • The spatial FWHM of a point source: this information can be found in fig. 4.12 of the PACS Observer's Manual and again in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document
  • Spectral leaks: there is order leakage in our filters that affects the ends of the blue and red bands. These are documented as figures in sec. 4.1 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document and again in sec. 4.8 of the PACS Observer's Manual . Dealing with this leakage by reducing the data with a particular calibration file is documented in the PACS spectrometer data reduction guide (in the pipeline chapters where the flatfielding task is discussed, and sec. 3.7)
  • Ghosts: see sec. 4.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document to learn about ghosts - echos of spectral lines from one wavelength to another from one spaxel to another. This is also documented in sec. 4.9 of the PACS Observer's Manual
  • Skews for off-centred sources: point sources that are not centrally located in a spaxel will show a skew to their spectral lines (although if the lines are faint this may not be obvious). Some calibration of this has been done and this can be found in sec. 4.7.2 and 4.7.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual and sec. 5.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document. Some more information concerning how to tell whether your source's offset should lead to a skew can be found in the PACS spectrometer data reduction guide, sec. 7.5
  • Calibration certainties: these are all documented in the beginning of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document
  • Names of the AOTs and what they mean: can be found in the AOT Release Notes
  • Expected signal-to-noise ratios and line sensitivity: this depends on the AOT, this information is also provided in the AOT Release Notes

Photometry

  • Filters and bands
    • The blue and green bands are not observed simultaneously, the red is observed simultaneously with each. Transmission functions can be found in the PACS Observer's Manual sec. 3.2.
  • PSF and beams: the beams maps as FITS files, and information about then can be found below in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps'
  • Point source photometry
    • Colour corrections: these are provided below in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps'
    • Aperture corrections/eefs (encircled energy fractions) are provided in sec. 8 of the PACS Photometer Point Spread function document
  • Effects of nonlinearity, saturation, stray light, crosstalk and ghosts: can be found in sec. 6 of the PACS Photometer Point Spread function document
  • Calibration certainty: is discussed below in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps' (item 'Point-source photometry'), with links there to two publications. You can also read sec 3.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual
  • Names of the AOTs and what they mean: can be found in the AOT Release Notes
  • Sensitivity: this depends on the AOT, this information is also provided in the AOT Release Notes

Reducing PACS data

Brief explanation

A brief introduction to reducing PACS data in HIPE. You can consult the PACS Data Reduction Guides (photometry and spectroscopy) for more detail.
  • PACS data are reduced with pipeline scripts which are a set of command-line tasks that process the data from Level 0 (raw) to Level 2/2.5 (science-ready). There is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target, AOT, and observing plan (e.g. mapping or single pointing for spectroscopy). These 'interactive' pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.
  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the 'SPG' (Standard Product Generator), meaning that they are processed with a tailored version of the latest pipeline scripts from the User Release. For example, when HIPE User Release 11.0 was released, soon after all the Herschel data are processed with the SPG pipeline scripts of version 11.0, and so on for each User Release.
  • These SPG scripts are a copy of one flavour of interactive pipeline scripts, differing only on the AOT type. The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks with settings that correspond to the most common type of science target for each AOT. But some pipeline tasks can only be run via the interactive pipeline scripts, and to modify the important parameter settings for pipeline tasks also requires you re-run the pipeline. The Launch Pads (see below) include a guide to understanding the pipeline scripts and how to decide which to run.
  • The SPG results a good starting point to look at your PACS data, but in most cases you can improve the results at least somewhat by reducing the data yourself.

HIPE and data reduction documentation

  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v12.1 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 12, build 2765. (The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every X months becomes a stable User Release. The CIB has the latest software in it, but it will not be bug-free.)

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  • The full documentation-set provided via HIPE includes the following:
    • The PACS (HIFI and SPIRE) DRGs. The main function of the PACS DRGs (photometry and spectroscopy) is to take you through reducing your data with the interactive pipeline, explaining the steps and the individual tasks in more detail and showing you how to inspect your results. This makes them rather long documents, and they should be read along with the pipeline scripts rather than on their own. They also show you how to quick-look at the SPG products you get from the HSA, what to consider before and after reducing your data, and explain what is contained in the PACS data products you get from the HSA.
    • A guide to using HIPE itself (i.e. HIPE as a GUI rather than a scientific tool).
    • The Data Reduction Guide, which is about working with all Herschel (or any other) data in HIPE: the various data analysis tools and data viewers are explained here.
    • The Scripting Guide: the language of HIPE is 'HIPE's version of jython', and it is a full scripting environment in which you can manipulate data, do mathematics, and view data in various ways. The 'SG' is a guide to scripting in HIPE. It is not necessary, but it does help, if you are already comfortable with scripting before embarking on scripting in HIPE.
    • Reference manuals. For most of the tasks that you can run in HIPE the description of what they do and listings of all the parameters can be found in the 'User's Reference Manual'. To learn more about the various HIPE product classes you can read the JAVA docs (APIs) a.k.a. the 'Developer's Reference Manual'. These tell you e.g. how to manipulate spectra and images directly by querying on the product, rather than using a pre-provided task.

  • The what's new in HIPE 12 page lists the changes in HIPE version 12.x with respect to the 11.x series, provides a detailed lists of updated functionalities and calibration aspects.

Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The various pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task (on the command-line), explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.

  • The PACS Launch Pad from June 2013 for photometry is provided here. The PACS Launch Pad from July 2013 for spectroscopy is provided here. These are taken from the first chapter of the respective PDRG and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. Also included is
    • why we recommend you do re-pipeline your data
    • what you need to pay attention to for different types of astronomical source
    • what the post-pipeline processing tasks are you can, or must, do
 

Tutorials and scripts

  • HIPE Academy on YouTube: here you can find recordings of various seminars and webinars that the HSC have given on working in HIPE, reducing Herschel data, using various tools to visualise and manipulate data in HIPE, and etc.

  • In HIPE there is a Scripts menu in which you can find various "useful scripts" for working with PACS data in HIPE. For example, for spectroscopy there is a script showing how to fit the spectra in cubes and make integrated flux images from them; for photometry we show how to do point source aperture photometry. These are written as scripts which you can open in HIPE and run on a test dataset, and in most cases you can replace the test dataset with your own and take it from there. Please do note that these scripts do not explain how to use the GUI version of the tasks - for this you need to read the PDRGs or the general Data Reduction Guide.

PACS calibration file versions

  • When starting HIPE, you will be informed if new calibration files are available. Clicking on 'show details' will show you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs (chap. 2). Clicking on 'Install' will install the latest calibration files.
  • The history of the calibration files that have been released to the community is provided here: PACS Calibration File History.
  • You can inspect the release notes for the calibration sets installed on your machine from within HIPE. Open the Calibration Sets View from the menu Window -> Show Views -> Workbench.
  • When reducing your data in HIPE you will normally use the latest version of the calibration tree that you have on disk (this happens by default), but you can chose to use a previous version instead. How to do this is explained in the PDRGs.
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The In-flight scientific capabilities of the PACS instrument are also given in this paper: The Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel Space Observatory (1.5 Mb), Poglitsch et al., 2010, A&A, 518, L2
 

PACS calibration and performance

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  • Point source observations. We provide a task at the end of the pipeline scripts to extract the spectrum of point sources, corrected for flux losses due to the PSF being larger than the spaxel size, and including a correction for flux losses due to small pointing offsets from the centre of the the central spaxel and pointing jitter. This task (extractCentralSpectrum) is used on cubes of a single pointing (i.e. not those created from combine several raster pointings) and must be run in order to correctly extract the spectrum of point sources. This task uses the beams we refer to above. The pros and cons and how and when to use the task are documented in the spectrometer PDRG (in the pipeline chapters and again in chap. 7).
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PACS calibration file versions

  • When starting HIPE, you will be informed if new calibration files are available. Clicking on 'show details' will show you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs (chap. 2). Clicking on 'Install' will install the latest calibration files.
  • The history of the calibration files that have been released to the community is provided here: PACS Calibration File History.
  • You can inspect the release notes for the calibration sets installed on your machine from within HIPE. Open the Calibration Sets View from the menu Window -> Show Views -> Workbench.
  • When reducing your data in HIPE you will normally use the latest version of the calibration tree that you have on disk (this happens by default), but you can chose to use a previous version instead. How to do this is explained in the PDRGs.

Reducing PACS data

A brief introduction to reducing PACS data in HIPE. You can consult the PACS Data Reduction Guides (photometry and spectroscopy; available via HIPE) for more detail.

  • PACS data are reduced with pipeline scripts which are a set of command-line tasks that process the data from Level 0 (raw) to Level 2/2.5 (science-ready). There is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target, AOT, and observing plan. These 'interactive' pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.
  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the 'SPG' (Standard Product Generator) using one pipeline script flavour per AOT. Which script is used is documented in the PDRG.
  • The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks within those scripts, with task settings that correspond to the most common type of science target for each AOT. But some pipeline tasks still can only be run via the interactive pipeline scripts, and to modify the parameter settings for the important pipeline tasks also requires you re-process the data. The Launch Pads (see below) include a guide to understanding the pipeline scripts and how to decide whether to reprocess your data and if so, with which script.

HIPE, data reduction documentation, and useful links for data issues

  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v13.0 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 13, build 5130. The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every few months (in the beginning of the mission) or yearly (in the post-operations phase) becomes a stable User Release.

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  • The what's new in HIPE 13 page lists the changes in HIPE version 13.x with respect to the 12.x series, and provides a detailed list of updated functionalities, product changes, and calibration aspects.

  • The Data products known issues page details issues about the pipelines or the data products that are known about and offers advice for dealing with them. Consult this if you encounter problems with your data to see if it has already been addressed.

Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The various interactive pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide in HIPE can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.

  • The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 13 for photometry is provided here. The PACS Launch Pad from HIPE 13 for spectroscopy is provided here. These are taken from the first chapters of the respective PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. Also included is
    • why we recommend you do re-pipeline your data
    • what you need to pay attention to for different types of astronomical source
    • what the crucial pipeline tasks are
    • what the post-pipeline processing tasks that we provide are
 

Tutorials and scripts

  • HIPE Academy on YouTube: here you can find recordings of various seminars and webinars that the HSC have given on working in HIPE, reducing Herschel data, using various tools to visualise and manipulate data in HIPE, and etc.

  • In HIPE there is a Scripts menu in which you can find various "useful scripts" for working with PACS data in HIPE. For example, for spectroscopy there is a script showing how to fit the spectra in cubes and make integrated flux images from them; for photometry we show how to do point source aperture photometry. These are written as scripts which you can open in HIPE and run on a test dataset, and in most cases you can replace the test dataset with your own and take it from there. Please do note that these scripts do not explain how to use the GUI version of the tasks - for this you need to read the PDRGs or the general Data Reduction Guide.

A summary of the PACS instrument for an astronomer

Here we provide a summary of instrumental and calibration details that a data-reducing astronomer often wants know. The summary provides a set of links or information about where to find the information.

Spectroscopy

  • Wavelength ranges and limits, band names
    • The blue bands are B2A (blue, second order) and B2B (green, second order), and B3A (blue, third order), and in the red we have R1 (first order)
    • The wavelength ranges and resolutions can be found in Table 4.1 of the PACS Observer's Manual (here for the HTML version)
  • The footprint of the integral field unit: text and figures showing the footprint of the PACS IFU, and how that compares to the beam, can be found in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) (sec. 3) where you will also find information about the beam maps (at high spatial resolution and for various wavelengths), beam efficiencies, and the point source loss corrections. This is mentioned again in the 'PACS spectrometer calibration' section below. The same information can be found in the PACS Observer's Manual (sec. 4.6)
  • The spatial FWHM of a point source: this information can be found in fig. 4.12 of the PACS Observer's Manual and again in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document
  • Spectral leaks: there is order leakage in our filters that affects the ends of the blue and red bands. These are documented as figures in sec. 4.1 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document and again in sec. 4.8 of the PACS Observer's Manual . Dealing with this leakage by reducing the data with a particular calibration file is documented in the PACS spectrometer data reduction guide (in the pipeline chapters where the flatfielding task is discussed, and sec. 3.7)
  • Ghosts: see sec. 4.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document to learn about ghosts - echos of spectral lines from one wavelength to another from one spaxel to another. This is also documented in sec. 4.9 of the PACS Observer's Manual
  • Skews for off-centred sources: point sources that are not centrally located in a spaxel will show a skew to their spectral lines (although if the lines are faint this may not be obvious). Some calibration of this has been done and this can be found in sec. 4.7.2 and 4.7.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual and sec. 5.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document. Some more information concerning how to tell whether your source's offset should lead to a skew can be found in the PACS spectrometer data reduction guide, sec. 7.5
  • Calibration certainties: these are all documented in the beginning of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document
  • Names of the AOTs and what they mean: can be found in the AOT Release Notes
  • Expected signal-to-noise ratios and line sensitivity: this depends on the AOT, this information is also provided in the AOT Release Notes

Photometry

  • Filters and bands
    • The blue and green bands are not observed simultaneously, the red is observed simultaneously with each. Transmission functions can be found in the PACS Observer's Manual sec. 3.2.
  • PSF and beams: the beams maps as FITS files, and information about then can be found below in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps'
  • Point source photometry
    • Colour corrections: these are provided below in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps'
    • Aperture corrections/eefs (encircled energy fractions) are provided in sec. 8 of the PACS Photometer Point Spread function document
  • Effects of nonlinearity, saturation, stray light, crosstalk and ghosts: can be found in sec. 6 of the PACS Photometer Point Spread function document
  • Calibration certainty: is discussed below in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps' (item 'Point-source photometry'), with links there to two publications. You can also read sec 3.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual
  • Names of the AOTs and what they mean: can be found in the AOT Release Notes
  • Sensitivity: this depends on the AOT, this information is also provided in the AOT Release Notes

 

Planned processing and calibration improvements

  • The PACS ICC and the HSC calibration scientist teams are currently working on making the following processing and calibration improvements available to the users:
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    • Improved a-posteriori pointing reconstruction based on guide star positions used for the observation and the gyroscope raw output.
    • Improved correction for systematics affecting the spectral shape of sources and detectability of unresolved lines.
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Interest Groups and Scripts

 

Links

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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies v5" date="1401288155" name="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v5.tar.gz" path="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v5.tar.gz" size="17708798" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS photometer point spread function, v2.0" date="1334076050" name="bolopsf_20.pdf" path="bolopsf_20.pdf" size="9866553" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Spectroscopy" date="1337956107" name="PACS_LaunchPads_May2012_S.pdf" path="PACS_LaunchPads_May2012_S.pdf" size="140968" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1428586131" name="pacs_specLP_Hipe13.pdf" path="pacs_specLP_Hipe13.pdf" size="1614292" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="pacs sepctrometer PDRG Hipe 10" date="1358867586" name="pacs_spec.pdf" path="pacs_spec.pdf" size="2933139" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1428585405" name="pacs_phot_Hipe13.pdf" path="pacs_phot_Hipe13.pdf" size="5259471" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies v4" date="1400775832" name="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v4.tar.gz" path="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v4.tar.gz" size="14320104" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies v3" date="1362496018" name="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v3.tar.gz" path="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v3.tar.gz" size="17692949" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spec DRG track 11" date="1380536743" name="PACS_Spec_DRG_0613b.pdf" path="PACS_Spec_DRG_0613b.pdf" size="3187170" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS launch pads from PDRG of Nov 11" date="1323162358" name="PACS_LaunchPads_Dec2011.pdf" path="PACS_LaunchPads_Dec2011.pdf" size="119061" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="mapmaking report" date="1383608954" name="pacs_mapmaking_report_ex_sum_v3.pdf" path="pacs_mapmaking_report_ex_sum_v3.pdf" size="10016210" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS photometer PDRG Hipe 11" date="1375089947" name="pacs_phot_June2013.pdf" path="pacs_phot_June2013.pdf" size="5261523" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"

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  A report of the map-making working group compiled by Roberta Paladini is available: PACS map-making tools: analysis and benchmarking, 1 Nov. 2013.
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An updated version of that report concentrating on JScanam, MADmap and Unimap in their latest versions is available in PACS Map-making Tools: Update on Analysis and Benchmarking, 30 March 2014.

 The optical field distortion is not applied in level 1, as this calibration is applied by the native photProject task. As a result, external map-makers starting from level 1 have a systematic flux overestimate of 6-7% in the red channel and a lower underestimate (~2%) in the blue channel of the flux scale. This is corrected for MADmap in Hipe12 by introducing the new task convertToFixedPixelSize() at the end of level1. The flux difference come from the fact that the mean values of the optical flat are significantly different from 1, in other words it cannot be assumed by external map-makers that the pixel sizes is constant of the field of view at 3.2"/6.4 in the blue/red channel respectively.

Scanamorphos and Unimap are also affected, but not JScanam that makes use of photProject.

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  SPIRE photometers.
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PDRG Spectroscopy from May 2012" date="1337955024" name="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" path="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" size="2554752" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Mueller exp. astr. paper 2013" date="1383609091" name="ExpAstr_PrimeAsteroids_revision1.pdf" path="ExpAstr_PrimeAsteroids_revision1.pdf" size="950563" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS Map-making Tools: Update on Analysis and Benchmarking" date="1406677684" name="pacs_mapmaking_report14_v2.pdf" path="pacs_mapmaking_report14_v2.pdf" size="2878552" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
 
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS Data Redction Guide for Hipe 12" date="1395078644" name="pacs_phot_Hipe12.pdf" path="pacs_phot_Hipe12.pdf" size="5257340" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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HIPE and data reduction documentation

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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v12.0 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 12, build 2603. (The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every X months becomes a stable User Release. The CIB has the latest software in it, but it will not be bug-free.)
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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v12.1 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 12, build 2765. (The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every X months becomes a stable User Release. The CIB has the latest software in it, but it will not be bug-free.)
 
  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 12. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
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    • The Scripting Guide: the language of HIPE is 'HIPE's version of jython', and it is a full scripting environment in which you can manipulate data, do mathematics, and view data in various ways. The 'SG' is a guide to scripting in HIPE. It is not necessary, but it does help, if you are already comfortable with scripting before embarking on scripting in HIPE.
    • Reference manuals. For most of the tasks that you can run in HIPE the description of what they do and listings of all the parameters can be found in the 'User's Reference Manual'. To learn more about the various HIPE product classes you can read the JAVA docs (APIs) a.k.a. the 'Developer's Reference Manual'. These tell you e.g. how to manipulate spectra and images directly by querying on the product, rather than using a pre-provided task.

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  • The what's new in HIPE 12 page lists the changes in HIPE version 12.0 with respect to the 11.x series, provides a detailed lists of updated functionalities and calibration aspects.
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  • The what's new in HIPE 12 page lists the changes in HIPE version 12.x with respect to the 11.x series, provides a detailed lists of updated functionalities and calibration aspects.
 
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PACS spectrometer calibration

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  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations. (Please note, this document refers to the calibration status and performance of pipeline version v8.0. An update compatible with HIPE v12.0 release will be provided soon.) This includes:
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  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations. (Please note, this document refers to the calibration status and performance of pipeline version v8.0. An update compatible with HIPE v12.1 release will be provided soon.) This includes:
 
    • flux calibration accuracies for chop nod and unchopped observations
    • the beam efficiencies and the PACS integral field footprint
    • spectral leakages and ghosts
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1288887824" name="aa14535-10.pdf" path="aa14535-10.pdf" size="1608742" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1288974438" name="bolopsfv1.01.pdf" path="bolopsfv1.01.pdf" size="5794753" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies v5" date="1401288155" name="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v5.tar.gz" path="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v5.tar.gz" size="17708798" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS photometer point spread function, v2.0" date="1334076050" name="bolopsf_20.pdf" path="bolopsf_20.pdf" size="9866553" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Spectroscopy" date="1337956107" name="PACS_LaunchPads_May2012_S.pdf" path="PACS_LaunchPads_May2012_S.pdf" size="140968" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="pacs sepctrometer PDRG Hipe 10" date="1358867586" name="pacs_spec.pdf" path="pacs_spec.pdf" size="2933139" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="The bandwidth of the PACS photometric system" date="1368111703" name="PICC-CR-TN-044.pdf" path="PICC-CR-TN-044.pdf" size="301271" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Nielbock et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy" date="1394554775" name="Nielbock_ExpAstr_2013.pdf" path="Nielbock_ExpAstr_2013.pdf" size="1499623" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer performance and calibration document, v2.4" date="1308306479" name="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" path="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" size="2106022" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v5.tar.gz" attr="" comment="PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies v5" date="1401288154" name="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v5.tar.gz" path="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v5.tar.gz" size="17708798" stream="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v5.tar.gz" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"

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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="pacs sepctrometer PDRG Hipe 10" date="1358867586" name="pacs_spec.pdf" path="pacs_spec.pdf" size="2933139" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PPR Jun 2011" date="1307485983" name="PPR_Jun2011.pdf" path="PPR_Jun2011.pdf" size="4442087" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies v4" date="1400775832" name="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v4.tar.gz" path="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v4.tar.gz" size="14320104" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="pacs spec launch page jun 2013" date="1370610744" name="PACS_LaunchPads_Jun2013_S.pdf" path="PACS_LaunchPads_Jun2013_S.pdf" size="173880" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1302632805" name="ExtSrcPhotom.pdf" path="ExtSrcPhotom.pdf" size="3382803" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1302633049" name="cc_report_v1.pdf" path="cc_report_v1.pdf" size="2640608" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer performance and calibration document, v2.4" date="1308306479" name="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" path="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" size="2106022" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
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Revision 1082014-03-18 - ElenaPuga

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    • The wavelength ranges and resolutions can be found in Table 4.1 of the PACS Observer's Manual (here for the HTML version)
  • The footprint of the integral field unit: text and figures showing the footprint of the PACS IFU, and how that compares to the beam, can be found in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) (sec. 3) where you will also find information about the beam maps (at high spatial resolution and for various wavelengths), beam efficiencies, and the point source loss corrections. This is mentioned again in the 'PACS spectrometer calibration' section below. The same information can be found in the PACS Observer's Manual (sec. 4.6)
  • The spatial FWHM of a point source: this information can be found in fig. 4.12 of the PACS Observer's Manual and again in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document
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Revision 1072014-03-18 - ElenaPuga

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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v12.0 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 12, build 2603. (The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every X months becomes a stable User Release. The CIB has the latest software in it, but it will not be bug-free.)

  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 12. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
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Revision 1062014-03-17 - BrunoAltieri

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Brief explanation

A brief introduction to reducing PACS data in HIPE. You can consult the PACS Data Reduction Guides (photometry and spectroscopy) for more detail.
  • PACS data are reduced with pipeline scripts which are a set of command-line tasks that process the data from Level 0 (raw) to Level 2/2.5 (science-ready). There is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target, AOT, and observing plan (e.g. mapping or single pointing for spectroscopy). These 'interactive' pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.
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  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the 'SPG' (Standard Product Generator), meaning that they are processed with a tailored version of the latest pipeline scripts from the User Release. For example, when HIPE User Release 11.0 is released, soon after all the Herschel data are processed with the SPG pipeline scripts of version 11.0, and so on for each User Release.
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  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the 'SPG' (Standard Product Generator), meaning that they are processed with a tailored version of the latest pipeline scripts from the User Release. For example, when HIPE User Release 11.0 was released, soon after all the Herschel data are processed with the SPG pipeline scripts of version 11.0, and so on for each User Release.
 
  • These SPG scripts are a copy of one flavour of interactive pipeline scripts, differing only on the AOT type. The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks with settings that correspond to the most common type of science target for each AOT. But some pipeline tasks can only be run via the interactive pipeline scripts, and to modify the important parameter settings for pipeline tasks also requires you re-run the pipeline. The Launch Pads (see below) include a guide to understanding the pipeline scripts and how to decide which to run.
  • The SPG results a good starting point to look at your PACS data, but in most cases you can improve the results at least somewhat by reducing the data yourself.

HIPE and data reduction documentation

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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v11.1 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 11, build 3010. (The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every X months becomes a stable User Release. The CIB has the latest software in it, but it will not be bug-free.)
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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v12.0 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 12, build 2603. (The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every X months becomes a stable User Release. The CIB has the latest software in it, but it will not be bug-free.)
 
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  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 11. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
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  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 12. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
 
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  • The full documentation-set provided via HIPE includes the following:
    • The PACS (HIFI and SPIRE) DRGs. The main function of the PACS DRGs (photometry and spectroscopy) is to take you through reducing your data with the interactive pipeline, explaining the steps and the individual tasks in more detail and showing you how to inspect your results. This makes them rather long documents, and they should be read along with the pipeline scripts rather than on their own. They also show you how to quick-look at the SPG products you get from the HSA, what to consider before and after reducing your data, and explain what is contained in the PACS data products you get from the HSA.
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    • The Scripting Guide: the language of HIPE is 'HIPE's version of jython', and it is a full scripting environment in which you can manipulate data, do mathematics, and view data in various ways. The 'SG' is a guide to scripting in HIPE. It is not necessary, but it does help, if you are already comfortable with scripting before embarking on scripting in HIPE.
    • Reference manuals. For most of the tasks that you can run in HIPE the description of what they do and listings of all the parameters can be found in the 'User's Reference Manual'. To learn more about the various HIPE product classes you can read the JAVA docs (APIs) a.k.a. the 'Developer's Reference Manual'. These tell you e.g. how to manipulate spectra and images directly by querying on the product, rather than using a pre-provided task.

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  • The what's new in HIPE 11 page lists the changes in HIPE version 11.1 with respect to the 10.x series, provides a detailed lists of updated functionalities and calibration aspects.
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  • The what's new in HIPE 12 page lists the changes in HIPE version 12.0 with respect to the 11.x series, provides a detailed lists of updated functionalities and calibration aspects.
 
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Photometer map-makers

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Three fundamentally different map-makers are offered in Hipe 11 with ipipe scripts, starting from level 1 on pairs of obsids :
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Three fundamentally different map-makers are offered in Hipe 12 with ipipe scripts, starting from level 1 on pairs of obsids :
 
  • highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are highpass filtered to remove the 1/f noise at the expense of extended emission. It provides optimum sensitivity to point-sources
  • MADmap, a GLS (generalized least square) map-maker, that allows to preserve extended emission at all scale
  • JyScanam, a Java-version of the IDL Scanamorphos map-maker
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  A report of the map-making working group compiled by Roberta Paladini is available: PACS map-making tools: analysis and benchmarking, 1 Nov. 2013.
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The optical field distortion is not applied in level 1, as this calibration is applied by the native photProject task. As a result, external map-makers starting from level 1 have a systematic flux overestimate of 6-7% in the red channel and a lower underestimate (~2%) in the blue channel of the flux scale. This will be corrected for MADmap in Hipe12/SPG12 by introducing the new task convertToFixedPixelSize() at the end of level1. The flux difference come from the fact that the mean values of the optical flat are significantly different from 1, in other words it cannot be assumed by external map-makers that the pixel sizes is constant of the field of view at 3.2"/6.4 in the blue/red channel respectively.
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The optical field distortion is not applied in level 1, as this calibration is applied by the native photProject task. As a result, external map-makers starting from level 1 have a systematic flux overestimate of 6-7% in the red channel and a lower underestimate (~2%) in the blue channel of the flux scale. This is corrected for MADmap in Hipe12 by introducing the new task convertToFixedPixelSize() at the end of level1. The flux difference come from the fact that the mean values of the optical flat are significantly different from 1, in other words it cannot be assumed by external map-makers that the pixel sizes is constant of the field of view at 3.2"/6.4 in the blue/red channel respectively.
  Scanamorphos and Unimap are also affected, but not JScanam that makes use of photProject.
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  to build maps from scan observations made with bolometer arrays, in particular with the PACS and SPIRE photometers.
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PDRG Spectroscopy from May 2012" date="1337955024" name="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" path="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" size="2554752" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS Data Redction Guide for Hipe 12" date="1395078644" name="pacs_phot_Hipe12.pdf" path="pacs_phot_Hipe12.pdf" size="5257340" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
 
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS photometer point spread function, v2.0" date="1334076050" name="bolopsf_20.pdf" path="bolopsf_20.pdf" size="9866553" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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<--A new responsivity calibration (version) is deployed on the HCSS 7 track (this is explained in the internal report PICC-ME-TN-033 v1.01, where the associated encircled energy fraction [EEF] is given). This improves the accuracy of photometry to 3% in the blue channel and 5% in the red channel. -->

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  • Point-source photometry: PACS uses 5 stars as primary calibrators with fluxes ranging from 0.6 to 15 Jy, plus fainter stars and asteroids as secondary calibrators. The absolute flux scale accuracy is dominated by the model uncertainties and amounts to 5% in the 3 filter bands. At the same time, the reproducibility for a given non-variable point source is better than 2% for all PACS bands. The flux calibration is described in detail in Balog et al, 2013, Experimental Astronomy and confirmed with asteroids in Müller et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy.
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  • Point-source photometry: PACS uses 5 stars as primary calibrators with fluxes ranging from 0.6 to 15 Jy, plus fainter stars and asteroids as secondary calibrators. The absolute flux scale accuracy is dominated by the model uncertainties and amounts to 5% in the 3 filter bands. At the same time, the reproducibility for a given non-variable point source is better than 2% for all PACS bands. The flux calibration is described in detail in Balog et al, 2013, Experimental Astronomy and confirmed with asteroids in Müller et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy.
 
 

Photometer map-makers

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  to build maps from scan observations made with bolometer arrays, in particular with the PACS and SPIRE photometers.
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Raw measurements PACS beams - central spaxel only" date="1362764493" name="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz" path="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz" size="123836" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PDRG Spectroscopy from May 2012" date="1337955024" name="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" path="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" size="2554752" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Mueller exp. astr. paper 2013" date="1383609091" name="ExpAstr_PrimeAsteroids_revision1.pdf" path="ExpAstr_PrimeAsteroids_revision1.pdf" size="950563" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="mapmaking report" date="1383608954" name="pacs_mapmaking_report_ex_sum_v3.pdf" path="pacs_mapmaking_report_ex_sum_v3.pdf" size="10016210" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Effect of high-pass filtering" date="1352916383" name="hpf_psf_tn_final.pdf" path="hpf_psf_tn_final.pdf" size="6648430" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="2"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Balog et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy" date="1394559586" name="Balog_ExpAstr_2013.pdf" path="Balog_ExpAstr_2013.pdf" size="579993" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1307379916" name="PhotMiniScan_ReleaseNote_20101112.pdf" path="PhotMiniScan_ReleaseNote_20101112.pdf" size="2036514" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1302637215" name="pacs_bolo_fluxcal_report_v1.pdf" path="pacs_bolo_fluxcal_report_v1.pdf" size="3197227" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer performance and calibration document, v2.4" date="1308306479" name="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" path="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" size="2106022" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PDRG Spectroscopy from May 2012" date="1337955024" name="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" path="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" size="2554752" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Mueller exp. astr. paper 2013" date="1383609091" name="ExpAstr_PrimeAsteroids_revision1.pdf" path="ExpAstr_PrimeAsteroids_revision1.pdf" size="950563" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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Introduction

This page provides up-to-date information about using the PACS instrument: from preparing observations to reducing your data. This includes information on the PACS instrument, PACS data, reducing PACS data in HIPE, and post-pipeline processing, and links to tutorials and scripts that you can run in HIPE. The calibration accuracies and technical information about the spectrometer and photometer of PACS are also provided here, as well as information about what future calibration and processing improvements can be expected.
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  A report of the map-making working group compiled by Roberta Paladini is available: PACS map-making tools: analysis and benchmarking, 1 Nov. 2013.
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The optical field distortion is not applied in level 1, as this calibration is applied by the native photProject task. As a result, external map-makers starting from level 1 have a systematic flux overestimate of 6-7% in the red channel and a lower underestimate (~2%) in the blue channel of the flux scale. This will be corrected for MADmap in Hipe12/SPG12 by introducing the new task convertToFixedPixelSize() at the end of level1. The flux difference come from the fact that the mean values of the optical flat are significantly different from 1, in other words it cannot be assumed by external map-makers that the pixel sizes is constant of the field of view at 3.2"/6.4 in the blue/red channel respectively.

Scanamorphos and Unimap are also affected, but not JScanam that makes use of photProject.

 

PACS spectrometer calibration

  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations. (Please note, this document refers to the calibration status and performance of pipeline version v8.0. An update compatible with HIPE v12.0 release will be provided soon.) This includes:

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 This page provides up-to-date information about using the PACS instrument: from preparing observations to reducing your data. This includes information on the PACS instrument, PACS data, reducing PACS data in HIPE, and post-pipeline processing, and links to tutorials and scripts that you can run in HIPE. The calibration accuracies and technical information about the spectrometer and photometer of PACS are also provided here, as well as information about what future calibration and processing improvements can be expected.

Observing with PACS

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  • The PACS Observer's Manual HTML PDF (11 Mb), version 2.3, 8-June-2011 : the first thing to read before applying for time with PACS (or even before working on PACS data for the first time), as it tells you how the instrument works. This includes:
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  • The PACS Observer's Manual HTML PDF (11 Mb), version 2.3, 8-June-2011 : the first thing to read before applying for time with PACS (or even before working on PACS data for the first time), as it tells you how the instrument works. This includes:
 
    • A description of the layout and the components of the PACS photometer and spectrometer
    • A description of the scientific capabilities of the instrument: spectral response functions, sensitivity values, point spread functions, astrometric accuracy, flux calibration information
    • A description of the standard observing templates used to set up PACS observations; here you can also find the various acronyms that are used in the PACS data reduction guides
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A summary of the PACS instrument for an astronomer

Here we provide a summary of instrumental and calibration details that a data-reducing astronomer often wants know. The summary provides a set of links or information about where to find the information.

Spectroscopy

  • Wavelength ranges and limits, band names
    • The blue bands are B2A (blue, second order) and B2B (green, second order), and B3A (blue, third order), and in the red we have R1 (first order)
    • The wavelength ranges and resolutions can be found in Table 4.1 of the PACS Observer's Manual (here for the HTML version)
  • The footprint of the integral field unit: text and figures showing the footprint of the PACS IFU, and how that compares to the beam, can be found in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) (sec. 3) where you will also find information about the beam maps (at high spatial resolution and for various wavelengths), beam efficiencies, and the point source loss corrections. This is mentioned again in the 'PACS spectrometer calibration' section below. The same information can be found in the PACS Observer's Manual (sec. 4.6)
  • The spatial FWHM of a point source: this information can be found in fig. 4.12 of the PACS Observer's Manual and again in the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document
  • Spectral leaks: there is order leakage in our filters that affects the ends of the blue and red bands. These are documented as figures in sec. 4.1 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document and again in sec. 4.8 of the PACS Observer's Manual . Dealing with this leakage by reducing the data with a particular calibration file is documented in the PACS spectrometer data reduction guide (in the pipeline chapters where the flatfielding task is discussed, and sec. 8.3)
  • Ghosts: see sec. 4.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document to learn about ghosts - echos of spectral lines from one wavelength to another from one spaxel to another. This is also documented in sec. 4.9 of the PACS Observer's Manual
  • Skews for off-centred sources: point sources that are not centrally located in a spaxel will show a skew to their spectral lines (although if the lines are faint this may not be obvious). Some calibration of this has been done and this can be found in sec. 4.7.2 and 4.7.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual and sec. 5.2 of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document. Some more information concerning how to tell whether your source's offset should lead to a skew can be found in the PACS spectrometer data reduction guide, sec. 7.5
  • Calibration certainties: these are all documented in the beginning of the PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document
  • Names of the AOTs and what they mean: can be found in the AOT Release Notes
  • Expected signal-to-noise ratios and line sensitivity: this depends on the AOT, this information is also provided in the AOT Release Notes

Photometry

  • Filters and bands
    • The blue and green bands are not observed simultaneously, the red is observed simultaneously with each. Transmission functions can be found in the PACS Observer's Manual sec. 3.2.
  • PSF and beams: the beams maps as FITS files, and information about then can be found below in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps'
  • Point source photometry
    • Colour corrections: these are provided below in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps'
    • Aperture corrections/eefs (encircled energy fractions) are provided in sec. 8 of the PACS Photometer Point Spread function document
  • Effects of nonlinearity, saturation, stray light, crosstalk and ghosts: can be found in sec. 6 of the PACS Photometer Point Spread function document
  • Calibration certainty: is discussed below in the section 'Photometer calibration in scan maps' (item 'Point-source photometry'), with links there to two publications. You can also read sec 3.3 of the PACS Observer's Manual
  • Names of the AOTs and what they mean: can be found in the AOT Release Notes
  • Sensitivity: this depends on the AOT, this information is also provided in the AOT Release Notes
 

Reducing PACS data

Brief explanation

A brief introduction to reducing PACS data in HIPE. You can consult the PACS Data Reduction Guides (photometry and spectroscopy) for more detail.
  • PACS data are reduced with pipeline scripts which are a set of command-line tasks that process the data from Level 0 (raw) to Level 2/2.5 (science-ready). There is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target, AOT, and observing plan (e.g. mapping or single pointing for spectroscopy). These 'interactive' pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.
  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the 'SPG' (Standard Product Generator), meaning that they are processed with a tailored version of the latest pipeline scripts from the User Release. For example, when HIPE User Release 11.0 is released, soon after all the Herschel data are processed with the SPG pipeline scripts of version 11.0, and so on for each User Release.
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  • These SPG scripts are a copy of one flavour of interactive pipeline scripts, differing only on the AOT type. The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks with settings that correspond to the most common type of science target for each AOT. But some pipeline tasks can only be run via the interactive script, and to modify the important parameter settings for pipeline tasks also requires you re-run the pipeline. The Launch Pads (see below) include a guide to understanding the pipeline scripts and how to decide which to run.
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  • These SPG scripts are a copy of one flavour of interactive pipeline scripts, differing only on the AOT type. The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks with settings that correspond to the most common type of science target for each AOT. But some pipeline tasks can only be run via the interactive pipeline scripts, and to modify the important parameter settings for pipeline tasks also requires you re-run the pipeline. The Launch Pads (see below) include a guide to understanding the pipeline scripts and how to decide which to run.
 
  • The SPG results a good starting point to look at your PACS data, but in most cases you can improve the results at least somewhat by reducing the data yourself.
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HIPE and data reduction documentation

  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v11.1 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 11, build 3010. (The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every X months becomes a stable User Release. The CIB has the latest software in it, but it will not be bug-free.)

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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v11.1 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 11, build 3010. (The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every X months becomes a stable User Release. The CIB has the latest software in it, but it will not be bug-free.)

  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 11. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
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  • The full documentation-set provided via HIPE includes the following:
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    • The PACS (HIFI and SPIRE) DRGs. The main function of the PACS DRGs (photometry and spectroscopy) is to take you through reducing your data with the interactive pipeline, explaining the steps and the individual tasks in more detail and showing you how to inspect your results. This makes them rather long documents, and they should be read along with the pipeline scripts rather than on their own. They also show you how to quick-look at the SPG products you get from the HSA, what to consider before and after reducing your data, and explain what is contained in the PACS data products you get from the HSA.
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    • The PACS (HIFI and SPIRE) DRGs. The main function of the PACS DRGs (photometry and spectroscopy) is to take you through reducing your data with the interactive pipeline, explaining the steps and the individual tasks in more detail and showing you how to inspect your results. This makes them rather long documents, and they should be read along with the pipeline scripts rather than on their own. They also show you how to quick-look at the SPG products you get from the HSA, what to consider before and after reducing your data, and explain what is contained in the PACS data products you get from the HSA.
 
    • A guide to using HIPE itself (i.e. HIPE as a GUI rather than a scientific tool).
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    • The Data Reduction Guide, which is about working with all Herschel (or any other) data in HIPE: the various data analysis tools and data viewers are explained here.
    • The Scripting Guide: the language of HIPE is 'HIPE's version of jython', and it is a full scripting environment in which you can manipulate data, do mathematics, and view data in various ways. The 'SG' is a guide to scripting in HIPE. It is not necessary, but it does help, if you are already comfortable with scripting before embarking on scripting in HIPE.
    • Reference manuals. For most of the tasks that you can run in HIPE the description of what they do and listings of all the parameters can be found in the 'User's Reference Manual'. To learn more about the various HIPE product classes you can read the JAVA docs (APIs) a.k.a. the 'Developer's Reference Manual'. These tell you e.g. how to manipulate spectra and images directly by querying on the product, rather than using a pre-provided task.
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    • The Data Reduction Guide, which is about working with all Herschel (or any other) data in HIPE: the various data analysis tools and data viewers are explained here.
    • The Scripting Guide: the language of HIPE is 'HIPE's version of jython', and it is a full scripting environment in which you can manipulate data, do mathematics, and view data in various ways. The 'SG' is a guide to scripting in HIPE. It is not necessary, but it does help, if you are already comfortable with scripting before embarking on scripting in HIPE.
    • Reference manuals. For most of the tasks that you can run in HIPE the description of what they do and listings of all the parameters can be found in the 'User's Reference Manual'. To learn more about the various HIPE product classes you can read the JAVA docs (APIs) a.k.a. the 'Developer's Reference Manual'. These tell you e.g. how to manipulate spectra and images directly by querying on the product, rather than using a pre-provided task.
 
  • The what's new in HIPE 11 page lists the changes in HIPE version 11.1 with respect to the 10.x series, provides a detailed lists of updated functionalities and calibration aspects.
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Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The various pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task (on the command-line), explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
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  • The PACS Launch Pad from June 2013 for photometry is provided here. The PACS Launch Pad from July 2013 for spectroscopy is provided here. These are taken from the first chapter of therespective PDRG and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, look at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines.
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  • The PACS Launch Pad from June 2013 for photometry is provided here. The PACS Launch Pad from July 2013 for spectroscopy is provided here. These are taken from the first chapter of the respective PDRG and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, looking at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. Also included is
 
    • why we recommend you do re-pipeline your data
    • what you need to pay attention to for different types of astronomical source
    • what the post-pipeline processing tasks are you can, or must, do
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  • The Nasa Herschel Science center (NHSC) has also posted some
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PACS Data Processing Tutorials
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PACS Data Processing Tutorials.
 
  • HIPE Academy on YouTube: here you can find recordings of various seminars and webinars that the HSC have given on working in HIPE, reducing Herschel data, using various tools to visualise and manipulate data in HIPE, and etc.
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  • When starting HIPE, you will be informed if new calibration files are available. Clicking on 'show details' will show you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs (chap. 2). Clicking on 'Install' will install the latest calibration files.
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  • You can inspect the release notes for the calibration sets installed on your machine from within HIPE. Open the Calibration Sets View from the menu Window -> Show Views -> Workbench.
  • When reducing your data in HIPE you will normally use the latest version of the calibration tree that you have on disk (this happens by default), but you can chose to use a previous version instead. How to do this is explained in the PDRGs.

PACS calibration and performance

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  • Data processing known issues of standard products for photometry and spectroscopy: Browse quality Level 2/2.5 products are provided in the Herschel Science Archive. This summary page describes typical problems and caveats the observer needs to be familiar when looking at these preview products. Aspects of product quality which can be further optimised by interactive processing are also summarised here. The document refers to the version of data processing pipeline currently being used for processing of incoming Herschel data (version number provided therein).
 

Photometer calibration in scan maps

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<--A new responsivity calibration (version) is deployed on the HCSS 7 track (this is explained in the internal report PICC-ME-TN-033 v1.01, where the associated encircled energy fraction [EEF] is given). This improves the accuracy of photometry to 3% in the blue channel and 5% in the red channel. -->

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  • Point-source photometry: PACS uses 5 stars as primary calibrators with fluxes ranging from 0.6 to 15 Jy, plus fainter stars and asteroids as secondary calibrators. The absolute flux scale accuracy is dominated by the model uncertainties and amounts to 5% in the 3 filter bands. At the same time, the reproducibility for a given non-variable point source is better than 2% for all PACS bands. The flux calibration is described in detail in Balog et al, 2013, Experimental Astronomy and confirmed with asteroids in Müller et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy
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  • Point-source photometry: PACS uses 5 stars as primary calibrators with fluxes ranging from 0.6 to 15 Jy, plus fainter stars and asteroids as secondary calibrators. The absolute flux scale accuracy is dominated by the model uncertainties and amounts to 5% in the 3 filter bands. At the same time, the reproducibility for a given non-variable point source is better than 2% for all PACS bands. The flux calibration is described in detail in Balog et al, 2013, Experimental Astronomy and confirmed with asteroids in Müller et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy.
 
<--
"PACS photometer point-source flux calibration (3.1 Mb) (PICC-ME-TN-037), version 1.0, 12 April 2011.
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  • Point-source photometry in deep PACS maps/surveys: The e ffect of the high-pass fi lter data reduction technique on the PACS Photometer PSF, point-source photometry and noise has been investigated in depth in this technical note
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  • Point-source photometry in deep PACS maps/surveys: The e ffect of the high-pass fi lter data reduction technique on the PACS Photometer PSF, point-source photometry, and noise has been investigated in depth in this technical note.
 
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  • Extended emission photometry: Three technical reports which assess the extended emission (or surface brightness) measured from PACS data and compare that to IRAS and Spitzer/MIPS data:
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  • Point-source observations:
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Photometer map-makers

Three fundamentally different map-makers are offered in Hipe 11 with ipipe scripts, starting from level 1 on pairs of obsids :

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  • highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are highpass filtered to remove the 1/f noise at the expense of extended emission. It provides optimum sensitivity to point-sources.
  • MADmap, a GLS (generalized least square) map-maker, that allows to preserve extended emission at all scale.
  • JyScanam, a Java-version of the IDL Scanamorphos map-maker.
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  • highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are highpass filtered to remove the 1/f noise at the expense of extended emission. It provides optimum sensitivity to point-sources
  • MADmap, a GLS (generalized least square) map-maker, that allows to preserve extended emission at all scale
  • JyScanam, a Java-version of the IDL Scanamorphos map-maker
  Another two public map-makers, also starting from level 1, widely used and both very easy to use are :
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  • Scanamorphos, an IDL map-maker from Hélène Roussel (IAP) with an advanced and powerful destriper for PACS maps.
  • Unimap a light (memory wise) GLS map-maker from Lorenzo Piazzo ('La Sapienza' University of Rome ) under a free Matlab runtime environment, with an advanced pre-processing (drift correction, jump detection) and post-processing stages (bright sources).
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  • Scanamorphos, an IDL map-maker from Hélène Roussel (IAP) with an advanced and powerful destriper for PACS maps
  • Unimap a light (memory wise) GLS map-maker from Lorenzo Piazzo ('La Sapienza' University of Rome ) under a free Matlab runtime environment, with an advanced pre-processing (drift correction, jump detection) and post-processing stages (bright sources)
  A report of the map-making working group compiled by Roberta Paladini is available: PACS map-making tools: analysis and benchmarking, 1 Nov. 2013.

PACS spectrometer calibration

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  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations. New issues of this document will be released with new versions of the pipeline and new versions of the calibration tree provided in the Herschel interactive data analysis system. Please note, the above linked document refers to the calibration status and performance of pipeline version v8.0. An update compatible with HIPE v9.0 release will be provided soon.

  • Data processing known issues of standard products: Browse quality Level 2 products are provided in the Herschel Science Archive. This summary page describes typical problems and caveats the observer needs to be familiar when looking at these preview products. Aspects of product quality which can be further optimised by interactive processing are also summarised here. The document refers to the version of data processing pipeline currently being used for processing of incoming Herschel data (version number provided therein).
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  • PACS Spectrometer performance and calibration: The PACS Spectrometer Calibration Document v2.4 (16-June-2011) provides details on the calibration accuracy and the necessary information to optimally interpret PACS spectroscopy observations. (Please note, this document refers to the calibration status and performance of pipeline version v8.0. An update compatible with HIPE v12.0 release will be provided soon.) This includes:
    • flux calibration accuracies for chop nod and unchopped observations
    • the beam efficiencies and the PACS integral field footprint
    • spectral leakages and ghosts
    • wavelength calibration, including information on a skew our native line profile develops as a point source moves off the centre of a spaxel
    • table of the point source correction factors for different wavelengths
  • The calibration of the spectrometer is based on repeated measurements of planets, asteroids, and stars. The RMS scatter of these measurements are just over 10% within any spectral band, about the same when comparing different spaxels, and similar (but higher in the red) when looking for broad-band features within any band. These calibration certainties are independent, and should be combined when quoting errors in science papers. Read the above-mentioned document for the most up-to-date information.
 
  • PACS spectrometer beams, version 3,can be downloaded here: PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v3.tar.gz. These beams are based on measurements of a raster with step size 2.5" around Neptune. These beams are useful to compare the flux seen in the different IFU spaxels with with a point source, or a certain brightness distribution in the sky. Version 3 has the beam effiencies for all IFU spaxels, and has a drastic improvement wrt version 2 since the spacecraft pointing was reconstructed more accurately. This resulted in a non-equidistant sampling of the beam efficiency in the sky. The beam products offered are equidistantly sampled on a grid of 0.5 arcseconds. The central part of the beam is the Gaussian fit to the measured beam efficiencies. This has been verified to be a very good description on the different raster observations we have of the central spaxels for wavelengths longer than 80 micron. Below 80 micron, the actual beam shows the square detector footprint, and the Gaussian approximation in the beam products v3 overpredicts the real beam efficiency by 1.5 to 2 percent. The outer part of the beams contains the interpolated values of the irregularly sampled measurements. Thanks to the improved data reduction quality, version 3 of the spectrometer beams are sharper than version 2, and shows the ghosts (see also the PACS spectrometer calibration document) more clearly, as well as the three-lobe structure of the Herschel telescope PSF. Each beam is normalised to the fitted peak value of the central spaxel. The WCS associated with the beam is in sky coordinates for position angle 0.
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  • The raw data from which the PACS spectrometer beams above have been derived, is also made available to the
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  • The raw data from which the PACS spectrometer beams above have been derived, is also made available to the
  users in tables (y, z offset - signal):
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    • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz: Raw measurements PACS beams - central spaxel only. This contains a fits file for each wavelenght measured for the CENTRAL SPAXEL only. Raw data of the coarse and fine rasters are combined. The array dimension of the fits file is [3,npoints] where the first column gives the y raster position, the 2nd column the z raster position and the 3rd column the normalised flux measured at this raster position.
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    • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz: Raw measurements PACS beams - central spaxel only. This contains a fits file for each wavelength measured for the CENTRAL SPAXEL only. Raw data of the coarse and fine rasters are combined. The array dimension of the fits file is [3,npoints] where the first column gives the y raster position, the 2nd column the z raster position and the 3rd column the normalised flux measured at this raster position.
 
    • SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_tables_v1.tar.gz: Raw measurements PACS beams - all spaxels, coarse raster measurements only: each fits files corresponds to one wavelength. Each file contains the data for all spaxels of the coarse raster measurement only. Each fits file holds an array of
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3x25x25x25 where: (0,25,25,25) : y raster position (1,25,25,25): z raster position (2,25,25,25): flux normalized to the central spaxel. The second and third dimensions are the raster position indexes (y and z) and the last dimension is the module number (=spaxel).
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3x25x25x25 where: (0,25,25,25)=y raster position, (1,25,25,25)=z raster position, (2,25,25,25)=flux normalized to the central spaxel. The second and third dimensions are the raster position indices (y and z) and the last dimension is the module number (=spaxel number).

  • Point source observations. We provide a task at the end of the pipeline scripts to extract the spectrum of point sources, corrected for flux losses due to the PSF being larger than the spaxel size, and including a correction for flux losses due to small pointing offsets from the centre of the the central spaxel and pointing jitter. This task (extractCentralSpectrum) is used on cubes of a single pointing (i.e. not those created from combine several raster pointings) and must be run in order to correctly extract the spectrum of point sources. This task uses the beams we refer to above. The pros and cons and how and when to use the task are documented in the spectrometer PDRG (in the pipeline chapters and again in chap. 7).
 

Planned processing and calibration improvements

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  available to the users:
    • Making spectrometer convolution kernels available. These products will be useful to estimate line-ratios in oversampled spectral maps.
    • Improved a-posteriori pointing reconstruction based on guide star positions used for the observation and the gyroscope raw output.
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    • Point source flux correction for observations not perfectly centered on the central spaxel.
 
    • Improved correction for systematics affecting the spectral shape of sources and detectability of unresolved lines.

Interest Groups and Scripts

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META TOPICPARENT name="WebHome"

PACS instrument and calibration web pages

Introduction

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This page provides up-to-date information about using the PACS instrument: from preparing observations to reducing your data. We include information summaries, technical reports, information about and links to HIPE--the data processing environment for Herschel data--and the PACS data reduction guides, and cookbooks and scripts that you can use in HIPE when working with PACS data. This page also provides you with the latest calibration accuracies and known PACS calibration issues, and information about what future calibration and processing improvements can be expected.
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This page provides up-to-date information about using the PACS instrument: from preparing observations to reducing your data. This includes information on the PACS instrument, PACS data, reducing PACS data in HIPE, and post-pipeline processing, and links to tutorials and scripts that you can run in HIPE. The calibration accuracies and technical information about the spectrometer and photometer of PACS are also provided here, as well as information about what future calibration and processing improvements can be expected.
 

Observing with PACS

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  • The PACS Observer's Manual HTML PDF (11 Mb), version 2.3, 8-June-2011 : the first thing to read before applying for time with PACS or before working on PACS data for the first time, as it tells you how the instrument works. This includes:
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  • The PACS Observer's Manual HTML PDF (11 Mb), version 2.3, 8-June-2011 : the first thing to read before applying for time with PACS (or even before working on PACS data for the first time), as it tells you how the instrument works. This includes:
 
    • A description of the layout and the components of the PACS photometer and spectrometer
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    • A description of the scientific capabilities of the instrument: spectral response functions, sensitivity values, point spread functions, astrometric accuracy; these can also be found in the AOT release notes
    • A description of the standard observing templates that were used to set up PACS observations; here you can also learn the lingo that is used in the PACS data reduction guides (DRGs)
    • A brief description of PACS data products; though much more detail on this is provided in the PACS DRGs
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    • A description of the scientific capabilities of the instrument: spectral response functions, sensitivity values, point spread functions, astrometric accuracy, flux calibration information
    • A description of the standard observing templates used to set up PACS observations; here you can also find the various acronyms that are used in the PACS data reduction guides
    • A brief description of PACS data products (although much more detail is provided in the appendices of the PACS data reduction guides)
 
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  • AOT Release Notes: dedicated release notes per AOT (the astronomer's observing template, i.e. planning your observing time).
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  • AOT Release Notes: dedicated release notes per AOT (the astronomer's observing template, i.e. the observing time planning).
 
    • Information about how the various standard observing blocks work
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    • Summaries of transmission functions, sensitivity, etc. for use in your observing planning
    • We are now at the end of the mission. But these release notes can still be useful to read for a background understanding on how PACS data were gathered--this dictates what you will see as you look at your PACS data while pipeline processing them
    • You can also learn here the lingo that is used in the PACS DRGs when describing the data reduction pipeline scripts
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    • Summaries of transmission functions, sensitivity, etc. for use in your observing planning (similar to what you will find in the Observer's Manual)
    • Here you can also find the various acronyms that are used in the PACS data reduction guides
    • We are now at the end of the mission. But these release notes can still be useful to read for a background understanding on how PACS data were gathered - this dictates what you will see as you look at your PACS data while pipeline processing them
 
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Reducing PACS data

Brief explanation

A brief introduction to reducing PACS data in HIPE. You can consult the PACS Data Reduction Guides (photometry and spectroscopy) for more detail.
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  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the "SPG" (Standard Product Generator), which is another way of saying that it is processed with a tailored version of the latest pipeline scripts from the User Release. So, when HIPE User Release 11.0 is released, soon after all the Herschel data are processed with the SPG pipeline scripts of version 11.0, and so on for each User Release.
  • For PACS these SPG scripts are a copy of one flavour of interactive pipeline scripts. The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks with settings that correspond to the most common type of science target and observing plan (AOT). But some pipeline tasks can only be run via the interactive scripts. The Launch Pads (see below) of the data reduction guides brings you up-to-date on this matter.
  • This makes the SPG results a good starting point to look at your PACS data, but in most cases you can improve the results at least somewhat by reducing the data yourself.
  • For photometry and spectroscopy both there is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target or observing plan. These "interactive" pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.
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  • PACS data are reduced with pipeline scripts which are a set of command-line tasks that process the data from Level 0 (raw) to Level 2/2.5 (science-ready). There is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target, AOT, and observing plan (e.g. mapping or single pointing for spectroscopy). These 'interactive' pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.
  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the 'SPG' (Standard Product Generator), meaning that they are processed with a tailored version of the latest pipeline scripts from the User Release. For example, when HIPE User Release 11.0 is released, soon after all the Herschel data are processed with the SPG pipeline scripts of version 11.0, and so on for each User Release.
  • These SPG scripts are a copy of one flavour of interactive pipeline scripts, differing only on the AOT type. The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks with settings that correspond to the most common type of science target for each AOT. But some pipeline tasks can only be run via the interactive script, and to modify the important parameter settings for pipeline tasks also requires you re-run the pipeline. The Launch Pads (see below) include a guide to understanding the pipeline scripts and how to decide which to run.
  • The SPG results a good starting point to look at your PACS data, but in most cases you can improve the results at least somewhat by reducing the data yourself.
 

HIPE and data reduction documentation

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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v11.1 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 11, build 3010. (The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every X months becomes a stable User Release. The CIB has the latest software in it, but it will not be bug-free.)
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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v11.1 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 11, build 3010. (The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every X months becomes a stable User Release. The CIB has the latest software in it, but it will not be bug-free.)
 
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  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE -user documentation for Track 11. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
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  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE user documentation for Track 11. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
 

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  • The documentation-set provided via HIPE includes the following:
    • The PACS(and HIFI and SPIRE) DRGs. The main function of the "PDRGs" is to take you through reducing your data with the interactive pipelines. They also show you how to quick-look at the already-reduced data you get from the HSA, what to consider before and after reducing your data, and explain what is contained in the PACS data products you get from the HSA.
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  • The full documentation-set provided via HIPE includes the following:
    • The PACS (HIFI and SPIRE) DRGs. The main function of the PACS DRGs (photometry and spectroscopy) is to take you through reducing your data with the interactive pipeline, explaining the steps and the individual tasks in more detail and showing you how to inspect your results. This makes them rather long documents, and they should be read along with the pipeline scripts rather than on their own. They also show you how to quick-look at the SPG products you get from the HSA, what to consider before and after reducing your data, and explain what is contained in the PACS data products you get from the HSA.
 
    • A guide to using HIPE itself (i.e. HIPE as a GUI rather than a scientific tool).
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    • A Data Reduction Guide, which is about working with all Herschel (or any other) data in HIPE: the various data analysis tools and data viewers are explained here
    • A Scripting Guide: the language of HIPE is "HIPE's version of jython", and it is intended to be a full scripting environment in which you can manipulate data, do mathematics, and view data in various ways. The "SG" is a guide to scripting in HIPE, although you should be comfortable with scripting yourself (preferably with python, jython, or JAVA) before embarking on scripting in HIPE.
    • Reference manuals, for most of the tasks that you can find in HIPE, and to all the product classes that you can find in HIPE (these tell you e.g. how to manipulate spectra and images directly by querying on the product, rather than using a pre-provided task).
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    • The Data Reduction Guide, which is about working with all Herschel (or any other) data in HIPE: the various data analysis tools and data viewers are explained here.
    • The Scripting Guide: the language of HIPE is 'HIPE's version of jython', and it is a full scripting environment in which you can manipulate data, do mathematics, and view data in various ways. The 'SG' is a guide to scripting in HIPE. It is not necessary, but it does help, if you are already comfortable with scripting before embarking on scripting in HIPE.
    • Reference manuals. For most of the tasks that you can run in HIPE the description of what they do and listings of all the parameters can be found in the 'User's Reference Manual'. To learn more about the various HIPE product classes you can read the JAVA docs (APIs) a.k.a. the 'Developer's Reference Manual'. These tell you e.g. how to manipulate spectra and images directly by querying on the product, rather than using a pre-provided task.
 
  • The what's new in HIPE 11 page lists the changes in HIPE version 11.1 with respect to the 10.x series, provides a detailed lists of updated functionalities and calibration aspects.

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Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The pipeline scripts can be seen as cookbooks since they take you through each pipeline flavour, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example, public, observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
  • The PDRGs explain in more detail what each pipeline task does and how to work your way through the more critical stages of the pipeline. The PDRGs also explain how to decide which pipeline flavour(s) to run on your data.
  • The PACS Launch Pad from June 2013 for photometry are provided here for photometry. This is taken from the first chapter of the PDRGs and is a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines.
  • The PACS Launch Pad from July 2013 for spectroscopy (for Track 11) are provided here for spectroscopy. This is taken from the first chapter of the PDRGs and is a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. In addition, we take you through all the things you need to think about before reprocessing your PACS spectroscopy through the pipeline yourself:
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Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The various pipeline scripts PACS photometry and spectroscopy provide can be seen as cookbooks, since they take you through each pipeline, task by task (on the command-line), explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example public observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.

  • The PACS Launch Pad from June 2013 for photometry is provided here. The PACS Launch Pad from July 2013 for spectroscopy is provided here. These are taken from the first chapter of therespective PDRG and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, look at them, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines.
 
    • why we recommend you do re-pipeline your data
    • what you need to pay attention to for different types of astronomical source
    • what the post-pipeline processing tasks are you can, or must, do
 
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Tutorials and scripts:
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Tutorials and scripts

 
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  • HIPE Academy on YouTube: here you can find recordings of various seminars and webinars that the HSC have given on working in HIPE, reducing Herschel data, using various tools to visualise and manipulate data in HIPE, and etc.
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  • In HIPE there is a Scripts menu in which you can find various "useful scripts" for working with PACS data in HIPE. For example, for spectroscopy there is a script showing how to fit the spectra in cubes and make integrated flux images from them; for photometry we show how to do point source aperture photometry. These are written as scripts which you can open in HIPE and run on a test dataset, and in most cases you can replace the test dataset with your own and take it from there. Please do note that these scripts do not explain how to use the GUI version of the tasks--for this you need to read the PDRGs or the general Data Reduction Guide.
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  • In HIPE there is a Scripts menu in which you can find various "useful scripts" for working with PACS data in HIPE. For example, for spectroscopy there is a script showing how to fit the spectra in cubes and make integrated flux images from them; for photometry we show how to do point source aperture photometry. These are written as scripts which you can open in HIPE and run on a test dataset, and in most cases you can replace the test dataset with your own and take it from there. Please do note that these scripts do not explain how to use the GUI version of the tasks - for this you need to read the PDRGs or the general Data Reduction Guide.
 

PACS calibration file versions

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META TOPICPARENT name="WebHome"

PACS instrument and calibration web pages

Introduction

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This page provides up-to-date information about using the PACS instrument: from preparing observations to reducing your data. This page also provides you with the latest calibration accuracies and known PACS calibration issues.
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This page provides up-to-date information about using the PACS instrument: from preparing observations to reducing your data. We include information summaries, technical reports, information about and links to HIPE--the data processing environment for Herschel data--and the PACS data reduction guides, and cookbooks and scripts that you can use in HIPE when working with PACS data. This page also provides you with the latest calibration accuracies and known PACS calibration issues, and information about what future calibration and processing improvements can be expected.
 

Observing with PACS

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  • AOT Release Notes: dedicated release notes per AOT (the astronomer's observing template, i.e. planning your observing time). These contain information about how the standard observing blocks work, transmission functions, sensitivity, etc.
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  • The PACS Observer's Manual HTML PDF (11 Mb), version 2.3, 8-June-2011 : the first thing to read before applying for time with PACS or before working on PACS data for the first time, as it tells you how the instrument works. This includes:
    • A description of the layout and the components of the PACS photometer and spectrometer
    • A description of the scientific capabilities of the instrument: spectral response functions, sensitivity values, point spread functions, astrometric accuracy; these can also be found in the AOT release notes
    • A description of the standard observing templates that were used to set up PACS observations; here you can also learn the lingo that is used in the PACS data reduction guides (DRGs)
    • A brief description of PACS data products; though much more detail on this is provided in the PACS DRGs

  • AOT Release Notes: dedicated release notes per AOT (the astronomer's observing template, i.e. planning your observing time).
    • Information about how the various standard observing blocks work
    • Summaries of transmission functions, sensitivity, etc. for use in your observing planning
    • We are now at the end of the mission. But these release notes can still be useful to read for a background understanding on how PACS data were gathered--this dictates what you will see as you look at your PACS data while pipeline processing them
    • You can also learn here the lingo that is used in the PACS DRGs when describing the data reduction pipeline scripts
 
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Reducing PACS data

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Brief explanation

A brief introduction to reducing PACS data in HIPE. You can consult the PACS Data Reduction Guides (photometry and spectroscopy) for more detail.
  • The data you get from the the HSA will have been processed by the "SPG" (Standard Product Generator), which is another way of saying that it is processed with a tailored version of the latest pipeline scripts from the User Release. So, when HIPE User Release 11.0 is released, soon after all the Herschel data are processed with the SPG pipeline scripts of version 11.0, and so on for each User Release.
  • For PACS these SPG scripts are a copy of one flavour of interactive pipeline scripts. The SPG scripts include all the stable pipeline tasks with settings that correspond to the most common type of science target and observing plan (AOT). But some pipeline tasks can only be run via the interactive scripts. The Launch Pads (see below) of the data reduction guides brings you up-to-date on this matter.
  • This makes the SPG results a good starting point to look at your PACS data, but in most cases you can improve the results at least somewhat by reducing the data yourself.
  • For photometry and spectroscopy both there is more than one flavour of pipeline script, tailored to different types of science target or observing plan. These "interactive" pipeline scripts are provided in HIPE and explained in the data reduction guides.
 
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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment): The latest User Release HCSS version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v11.1 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 11, build 3010.
>
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HIPE and data reduction documentation

  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment) is the tool used to inspect, reduce, and analyse Herschel data. The latest User Release HCSS (Herschel common science system) version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v11.1 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 11, build 3010. (The CIB is the continuously bug-fixed/upgraded/improved version of HIPE, which every X months becomes a stable User Release. The CIB has the latest software in it, but it will not be bug-free.)
 
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  • Within HIPE you can access all the PACS data reduction documentation and the general HCSS and HIPE -user documentation for Track 11. The documentation provided via HIPE opens in a web browser, but for those of you who prefer PDF, we include the PACS Data Reduction Guides as PDF files here (note that within the standalone pdf versions, external links will not work):
 
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Note that within the standalone pdf version, external links will go nowhere. The PDRG follows the pipeline scripts (see "Cookbooks" below) and also explains what you are doing as you pipeline process.
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  • The documentation-set provided via HIPE includes the following:
    • The PACS(and HIFI and SPIRE) DRGs. The main function of the "PDRGs" is to take you through reducing your data with the interactive pipelines. They also show you how to quick-look at the already-reduced data you get from the HSA, what to consider before and after reducing your data, and explain what is contained in the PACS data products you get from the HSA.
    • A guide to using HIPE itself (i.e. HIPE as a GUI rather than a scientific tool).
    • A Data Reduction Guide, which is about working with all Herschel (or any other) data in HIPE: the various data analysis tools and data viewers are explained here
    • A Scripting Guide: the language of HIPE is "HIPE's version of jython", and it is intended to be a full scripting environment in which you can manipulate data, do mathematics, and view data in various ways. The "SG" is a guide to scripting in HIPE, although you should be comfortable with scripting yourself (preferably with python, jython, or JAVA) before embarking on scripting in HIPE.
    • Reference manuals, for most of the tasks that you can find in HIPE, and to all the product classes that you can find in HIPE (these tell you e.g. how to manipulate spectra and images directly by querying on the product, rather than using a pre-provided task).
 
  • The what's new in HIPE 11 page lists the changes in HIPE version 11.1 with respect to the 10.x series, provides a detailed lists of updated functionalities and calibration aspects.

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Cookbooks

  • Our version of cookbooks are the pipeline scripts, because (i) we recommend you rereduce your data in any case and (ii) these scripts are heavily commented to guide you through the data reduction process. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
  • See also the walkthroughs on the NHSC PACS page.
  • The PACS Launch Pads from June 2013 for photometry are provided here for photometry. These are taken from the first chapter of the PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines.
  • The PACS Launch Pads from July 2013 (for Track 11) are provided here for spectroscopy. These are taken from the first chapter of the PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. In addition, we take you through all the things you need to think about before reprocessing your PACS spectroscopy through the pipeline yourself:
>
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Cookbooks and interactive pipeline scripts

  • The pipeline scripts can be seen as cookbooks since they take you through each pipeline flavour, explaining briefly what each task does, commenting on the more crucial pipeline tasks, and showing you how to plot, image, visualise and inspect your data as you work through the pipeline. An example, public, observation is included with each so you can test it out before using it on your data. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
  • The PDRGs explain in more detail what each pipeline task does and how to work your way through the more critical stages of the pipeline. The PDRGs also explain how to decide which pipeline flavour(s) to run on your data.
  • The PACS Launch Pad from June 2013 for photometry are provided here for photometry. This is taken from the first chapter of the PDRGs and is a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines.
  • The PACS Launch Pad from July 2013 for spectroscopy (for Track 11) are provided here for spectroscopy. This is taken from the first chapter of the PDRGs and is a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. In addition, we take you through all the things you need to think about before reprocessing your PACS spectroscopy through the pipeline yourself:
 
    • why we recommend you do re-pipeline your data
    • what you need to pay attention to for different types of astronomical source
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    • what the post-pipeline processing tasks are you can, or must, do.
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    • what the post-pipeline processing tasks are you can, or must, do
  Tutorials and scripts:
  • See the various walkthroughs on the NHSC PACS page.
  • HIPE Academy on YouTube: here you can find recordings of various seminars and webinars that the HSC have given on working in HIPE, reducing Herschel data, using various tools to visualise and manipulate data in HIPE, and etc.
  • In HIPE there is a Scripts menu in which you can find various "useful scripts" for working with PACS data in HIPE. For example, for spectroscopy there is a script showing how to fit the spectra in cubes and make integrated flux images from them; for photometry we show how to do point source aperture photometry. These are written as scripts which you can open in HIPE and run on a test dataset, and in most cases you can replace the test dataset with your own and take it from there. Please do note that these scripts do not explain how to use the GUI version of the tasks--for this you need to read the PDRGs or the general Data Reduction Guide.
 

PACS calibration file versions

  • When starting HIPE, you will be informed if new calibration files are available. Clicking on 'show details' will show
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you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is all also explained in the PDRG (chap 2)

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you the release note of the new calibration set, with details about the changes. This is further explained in the PDRGs (chap. 2). Clicking on 'Install' will install the latest calibration files.
 
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  • You can inspect the release notes for the calibration sets installed on your machine from within HIPE. Open the Calibration Sets View from the menu Window -> Show Views -> Workbench.
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  • When reducing your data in HIPE you will normally use the latest version of the calibration tree that you have on disk (this happens by default), but you can chose to use a previous version instead. How to do this is explained in the PDRGs.
 

PACS calibration and performance

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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Reducing PACS data

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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment): The latest User Release HCSS version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v11.0 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 11, build 2934.
>
>
  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment): The latest User Release HCSS version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v11.1 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 11, build 3010.
  Note that within the standalone pdf version, external links will go nowhere. The PDRG follows the pipeline scripts (see "Cookbooks" below) and also explains what you are doing as you pipeline process.

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  • The what's new in HIPE 11 page lists the changes in HIPE version 11.0 with respect to the 10.x series, provides a detailed lists of updated functionalities and calibration aspects.
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  • The what's new in HIPE 11 page lists the changes in HIPE version 11.1 with respect to the 10.x series, provides a detailed lists of updated functionalities and calibration aspects.
 

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<--A new responsivity calibration (version) is deployed on the HCSS 7 track (this is explained in the internal report PICC-ME-TN-033 v1.01, where the associated encircled energy fraction [EEF] is given). This improves the accuracy of photometry to 3% in the blue channel and 5% in the red channel. -->

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  • Point-source photometry: PACS uses 5 stars as primary calibrators with fluxes ranging from 0.6 to 15 Jy, plus fainter stars and asteroids as secondary calibrators. The absolute flux scale accuracy is dominated by the model uncertainties and amounts to 5% in the 3 filter bands. At the same time, the reproducibility for a given non-variable point source is about 2% for all PACS bands. The flux calibration is described in detail in the technical note "PACS photometer point-source flux calibration (3.1 Mb) (PICC-ME-TN-037), version 1.0, 12 April 2011.
>
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  • Point-source photometry: PACS uses 5 stars as primary calibrators with fluxes ranging from 0.6 to 15 Jy, plus fainter stars and asteroids as secondary calibrators. The absolute flux scale accuracy is dominated by the model uncertainties and amounts to 5% in the 3 filter bands. At the same time, the reproducibility for a given non-variable point source is better than 2% for all PACS bands. The flux calibration is described in detail in Balog et al, 2013, Experimental Astronomy and confirmed with asteroids in Müller et al., 2013, Experimental Astronomy

<--
"PACS photometer point-source flux calibration (3.1 Mb) (PICC-ME-TN-037), version 1.0, 12 April 2011.
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  • Point-source photometry in deep PACS maps/surveys: The e ffect of the high-pass fi lter data reduction technique on the PACS Photometer PSF, point-source photometry and noise has been investigated in depth in this technical note

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  • Scanamorphos, an IDL map-maker from Hélène Roussel (IAP) with an advanced and powerful destriper for PACS maps.
  • Unimap a light (memory wise) GLS map-maker from Lorenzo Piazzo ('La Sapienza' University of Rome ) under a free Matlab runtime environment, with an advanced pre-processing (drift correction, jump detection) and post-processing stages (bright sources).
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A report of the map-making working group compiled by Roberta Paladini is available: PACS map-making tools: analysis and benchmarking, 1 Nov. 2013.
 

PACS spectrometer calibration

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  SPIRE photometers.
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Mueller exp. astr. paper 2013" date="1383609091" name="ExpAstr_PrimeAsteroids_revision1.pdf" path="ExpAstr_PrimeAsteroids_revision1.pdf" size="950563" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
 
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS Spectrometer beams" date="1310684886" name="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v1.tar.gz" path="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v1.tar.gz" size="87776" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Photometry" date="1337956081" name="PACS_LaunchPads_May2012_P.pdf" path="PACS_LaunchPads_May2012_P.pdf" size="113708" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
 
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="The bandwidth of the PACS photometric system" date="1368111703" name="PICC-CR-TN-044.pdf" path="PICC-CR-TN-044.pdf" size="301271" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1307021295" name="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_31May2011.pdf" path="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_31May2011.pdf" size="2385315" user="Main.JeanMatagne" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PDRG Photometry for May 2012" date="1337955890" name="PDRG_Phot_May12.pdf" path="PDRG_Phot_May12.pdf" size="482490" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer performance and calibration document, v2.4" date="1308306479" name="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" path="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" size="2106022" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer performance and calibration document, v2.4" date="1308306479" name="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" path="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" size="2106022" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment): The latest User Release HCSS version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v11.0 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 11, build 2934.

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  Note that within the standalone pdf version, external links will go nowhere. The PDRG follows the pipeline scripts (see "Cookbooks" below) and also explains what you are doing as you pipeline process.

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  SPIRE photometers.
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Raw measurements PACS beams - central spaxel only" date="1362764493" name="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz" path="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz" size="123836" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PDRG Spectroscopy from May 2012" date="1337955024" name="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" path="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" size="2554752" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1288887824" name="aa14535-10.pdf" path="aa14535-10.pdf" size="1608742" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS photometer point spread function, v2.0" date="1334076050" name="bolopsf_20.pdf" path="bolopsf_20.pdf" size="9866553" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS photometer PDRG Hipe 11" date="1375089947" name="pacs_phot_June2013.pdf" path="pacs_phot_June2013.pdf" size="5261523" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Spectroscopy" date="1337956107" name="PACS_LaunchPads_May2012_S.pdf" path="PACS_LaunchPads_May2012_S.pdf" size="140968" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="pacs sepctrometer PDRG Hipe 10" date="1358867586" name="pacs_spec.pdf" path="pacs_spec.pdf" size="2933139" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Effect of high-pass filtering" date="1352916383" name="hpf_psf_tn_final.pdf" path="hpf_psf_tn_final.pdf" size="6648430" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="2"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PPR Jun 2011" date="1307485983" name="PPR_Jun2011.pdf" path="PPR_Jun2011.pdf" size="4442087" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="pacs spec launch page jun 2013" date="1370610744" name="PACS_LaunchPads_Jun2013_S.pdf" path="PACS_LaunchPads_Jun2013_S.pdf" size="173880" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1307379916" name="PhotMiniScan_ReleaseNote_20101112.pdf" path="PhotMiniScan_ReleaseNote_20101112.pdf" size="2036514" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1302632805" name="ExtSrcPhotom.pdf" path="ExtSrcPhotom.pdf" size="3382803" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1302633049" name="cc_report_v1.pdf" path="cc_report_v1.pdf" size="2640608" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PDRG Track 8.0 RC6" date="1323252325" name="PDRG_Dec2011.pdf" path="PDRG_Dec2011.pdf" size="6815245" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer beam effiencies, version 2" date="1326718149" name="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v2.tar.gz" path="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v2.tar.gz" size="952989" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS photometer PDRG Hipe 10" date="1358867613" name="pacs_phot.pdf" path="pacs_phot.pdf" size="4782317" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1302637215" name="pacs_bolo_fluxcal_report_v1.pdf" path="pacs_bolo_fluxcal_report_v1.pdf" size="3197227" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS Spectrometer beams" date="1310684886" name="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v1.tar.gz" path="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v1.tar.gz" size="87776" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1288974484" name="PACSPSF_PICC-ME-TN-029_v2.0.pdf" path="PACSPSF_PICC-ME-TN-029_v2.0.pdf" size="3247581" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PDRG Jun 2011" date="1307485675" name="PDRG_Jun2011.pdf" path="PDRG_Jun2011.pdf" size="5474316" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Photometry" date="1337956081" name="PACS_LaunchPads_May2012_P.pdf" path="PACS_LaunchPads_May2012_P.pdf" size="113708" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Raw measurements PACS beams - all spaxels" date="1362764619" name="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_tables_v1.tar.gz" path="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_tables_v1.tar.gz" size="2808129" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="The bandwidth of the PACS photometric system" date="1368111703" name="PICC-CR-TN-044.pdf" path="PICC-CR-TN-044.pdf" size="301271" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1307021295" name="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_31May2011.pdf" path="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_31May2011.pdf" size="2385315" user="Main.JeanMatagne" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PDRG Photometry for May 2012" date="1337955890" name="PDRG_Phot_May12.pdf" path="PDRG_Phot_May12.pdf" size="482490" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1289819791" name="SimulPSP_v1.0.pdf" path="SimulPSP_v1.0.pdf" size="5451519" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer performance and calibration document, v2.4" date="1308306479" name="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" path="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" size="2106022" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1302633033" name="PICC-NHSC-TN-029.pdf" path="PICC-NHSC-TN-029.pdf" size="999084" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer beam efficiencies v3" date="1362496018" name="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v3.tar.gz" path="PCalSpectrometer_Beam_v3.tar.gz" size="17692949" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS launch pads from PDRG of Nov 11" date="1323162358" name="PACS_LaunchPads_Dec2011.pdf" path="PACS_LaunchPads_Dec2011.pdf" size="119061" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS photometer PDRG Hipe 11" date="1375089947" name="pacs_phot_June2013.pdf" path="pacs_phot_June2013.pdf" size="5261523" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Effect of high-pass filtering" date="1352916383" name="hpf_psf_tn_final.pdf" path="hpf_psf_tn_final.pdf" size="6648430" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="2"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1307379916" name="PhotMiniScan_ReleaseNote_20101112.pdf" path="PhotMiniScan_ReleaseNote_20101112.pdf" size="2036514" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spec drg jun 2013 track 11" date="1375953294" name="PACS_Spec_DRG_0613.pdf" path="PACS_Spec_DRG_0613.pdf" size="179684" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="2"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1302637215" name="pacs_bolo_fluxcal_report_v1.pdf" path="pacs_bolo_fluxcal_report_v1.pdf" size="3197227" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1288974484" name="PACSPSF_PICC-ME-TN-029_v2.0.pdf" path="PACSPSF_PICC-ME-TN-029_v2.0.pdf" size="3247581" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Photometry" date="1337956081" name="PACS_LaunchPads_May2012_P.pdf" path="PACS_LaunchPads_May2012_P.pdf" size="113708" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="The bandwidth of the PACS photometric system" date="1368111703" name="PICC-CR-TN-044.pdf" path="PICC-CR-TN-044.pdf" size="301271" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spectrometer performance and calibration document, v2.4" date="1308306479" name="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" path="PacsSpectroscopyPerformanceAndCalibration_v2_4.pdf" size="2106022" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attachment="PACS_Spec_DRG_0613b.pdf" attr="" comment="PACS spec DRG track 11" date="1380536743" name="PACS_Spec_DRG_0613b.pdf" path="PACS_Spec_DRG_0613b.pdf" size="3187170" stream="PACS_Spec_DRG_0613b.pdf" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"

Revision 962013-08-22 - BrunoAltieri

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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  • Point-source observations:
    • We refer to: PACS Photometer: chop/nod point-source & mini-scan map AOT release note: (2 Mb) version 2.0, 12 November 2010. We recommend you use the mini scan-map technique in all science cases related to point-sources, compact sources and also in cases of faint extended emission around point-sources. The chop/nod mode is no longer recommended for use.
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    • However, for a technical assessment of the original chop/nod mode sensitivity intended for point-sources, we refer to SAp-PACS-MS-0711-09 (5.5 Mb).
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Photometer map-makers

Revision 952013-08-22 - MarkusNielbock

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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  SPIRE photometers.
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS calibration paper on photometer chop-nod flux calibration as submitted to Experimental Astronomy" date="1374684879" name="PACS_PhotCalPaper_ChopNodFluxCalibration.pdf" path="PACS_PhotCalPaper_ChopNodFluxCalibration.pdf" size="644706" user="Main.MarkusNielbock" version="1"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Raw measurements PACS beams - central spaxel only" date="1362764493" name="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz" path="SpecSpatial_BeamEfficiency_central_spaxel_tables_v1.tar.gz" size="123836" user="Main.BartVandenbussche" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PDRG Spectroscopy from May 2012" date="1337955024" name="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" path="PDRG_Spec_May12.pdf" size="2554752" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1288887824" name="aa14535-10.pdf" path="aa14535-10.pdf" size="1608742" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"

Revision 942013-08-08 - KatrinaExter

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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Cookbooks

  • Our version of cookbooks are the pipeline scripts, because (i) we recommend you rereduce your data in any case and (ii) these scripts are heavily commented to guide you through the data reduction process. These data reduction scripts are available in HIPE under the menu: Pipeline --> PACS --> Photometer/Spectrometer.
  • See also the walkthroughs on the NHSC PACS page.
Changed:
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  • The PACS Launch Pads from May 2012 for photometry are provided here for photometry. These are taken from the first chapter of the PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines.
  • The PACS Launch Pads from Jun 2013 (for Track 11) are provided here for spectroscopy. These are taken from the first chapter of the PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. In addition, we take you through all the things you need to think about before reprocessing your PACS spectroscopy through the pipeline yourself:
>
>
  • The PACS Launch Pads from June 2013 for photometry are provided here for photometry. These are taken from the first chapter of the PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines.
  • The PACS Launch Pads from July 2013 (for Track 11) are provided here for spectroscopy. These are taken from the first chapter of the PDRGs and are a useful quick-start guide to loading your data into HIPE, and then what to know and do before you begin reprocessing your data with one of the pipelines. In addition, we take you through all the things you need to think about before reprocessing your PACS spectroscopy through the pipeline yourself:
 
    • why we recommend you do re-pipeline your data
    • what you need to pay attention to for different types of astronomical source
    • what the post-pipeline processing tasks are you can, or must, do.
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS photometer PDRG Hipe 11" date="1375089947" name="pacs_phot_June2013.pdf" path="pacs_phot_June2013.pdf" size="5261523" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Effect of high-pass filtering" date="1352916383" name="hpf_psf_tn_final.pdf" path="hpf_psf_tn_final.pdf" size="6648430" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="2"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1307379916" name="PhotMiniScan_ReleaseNote_20101112.pdf" path="PhotMiniScan_ReleaseNote_20101112.pdf" size="2036514" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spec drg jun 2013 track 11" date="1370610786" name="PACS_Spec_DRG_0613.pdf" path="PACS_Spec_DRG_0613.pdf" size="2497233" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"
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META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="PACS spec drg jun 2013 track 11" date="1375953294" name="PACS_Spec_DRG_0613.pdf" path="PACS_Spec_DRG_0613.pdf" size="179684" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="2"
 
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1302637215" name="pacs_bolo_fluxcal_report_v1.pdf" path="pacs_bolo_fluxcal_report_v1.pdf" size="3197227" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="" date="1288974484" name="PACSPSF_PICC-ME-TN-029_v2.0.pdf" path="PACSPSF_PICC-ME-TN-029_v2.0.pdf" size="3247581" user="Main.BrunoAltieri" version="1"
META FILEATTACHMENT attr="" autoattached="1" comment="Photometry" date="1337956081" name="PACS_LaunchPads_May2012_P.pdf" path="PACS_LaunchPads_May2012_P.pdf" size="113708" user="Main.KatrinaExter" version="1"

Revision 932013-07-29 - BrunoAltieri

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PACS instrument and calibration web pages

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Reducing PACS data

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  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment): The latest User Release HCSS version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v11.0 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 11, build 2931.
>
>
  • HIPE (Herschel Interactive Processing Environment): The latest User Release HCSS version that you should use for reducing PACS data is HIPE v11.0 It can be downloaded from: http://herschel.esac.esa.int/HIPE_download.shtml. In the CIB (continuous integration build) this version corresponds to Track 11, build 2934.
 
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    • However, for a technical assessment of the original chop/nod mode sensitivity intended for point-sources, we refer to SAp-PACS-MS-0711-09 (5.5 Mb).
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Photometer map-makers

Three fundamentally different map-makers are offered in Hipe 11 with ipipe scripts, starting from level 1 on pairs of obsids :

  • highpass filtering branch, where the bolometer timelines are highpass filtered to remove the 1/f noise at the expense of extended emission. It provides optimum sensitivity to point-sources.
  • MADmap, a GLS (generalized least square) map-maker, that allows to preserve extended emission at all scale.
  • JyScanam, a Java-version of the IDL Scanamorphos map-maker.