Overview of KP OT proposals

SCIENCE CATEGORY: Solar system (1)

Proposal ID: KPOT_thmuelle_1
"TNOs are Cool: A Survey of the Transneptunian Region"
Principal Investigator: Thomas Mueller (MPE, Garching)
Over one thousand objects have been discovered orbiting beyond Neptune. These trans-Neptunian 
objects (TNOs) represent the primitive remnants of the planetesimal disk from which the 
outer planets formed, and is an analog for unseen dust parent-bodies in debris disks observed 
around other main-sequence stars. The dynamical and physical properties of these bodies provide 
unique and important constraints on formation and evolution models of the outer Solar System. 
While the dynamical architecture in this region (also known as the Kuiper Belt) is becoming 
relatively clear, the physical properties of the objects are only beginning to be revealed. 
In particular, fundamental parameters such as size, albedo, density and thermal properties 
are difficult to measure. Measurements of their thermal emission, which peaks at far-IR 
wavelengths, offer the best means available to determine those physical properties. While 
Spitzer has provided the first results, notably revealing a large albedo diversity in this 
population, the increased sensitivity of Herschel and its wavelength coverage will permit 
profound advances in the field. We propose to perform radiometric measurements of 141 objects, 
including 25 known multiple systems. This large sample will permit: (i) A determination of the 
size distribution of the large (> 200 km) objects, thought to have remained unchanged from the 
accretion phase. (ii) Systematic searches for correlations between size, albedo, and other 
physical and orbital parameters, diagnostic of formation and evolution processes. 
(iii) Determination of mass-density for at least 20 binary TNOs, diagnostic of nebular 
chemistry and interior structure. (iv) The first study of their thermophysical properties, 
including thermal inertia and surface emissivity. When combined with measurements of the dust 
population beyond Neptune (e.g. from the New Horizons mission to Pluto and beyond), our 
results will provide a benchmark for understanding the solar system debris disk, and extra-solar 
ones as well.

SCIENCE CATEGORY: ISM/Star formation (10)


Proposal ID: KPOT_bdent_1
"Gas in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS)"
Principal Investigator: Bill Dent (UK Astronomy Technology Centre)
We propose the first extensive, systematic survey of gas in circumstellar disks 
over the critical transition from gas-rich protoplanetary through to gas-poor 
debris system. The brightest spectral lines from disks lie in the far-infrared 
and arise from radii ~10-500 AU, where giant planets are expected to form. Herschel 
is uniquely able to observe this wavelength regime with the sensitivity to allow a 
large scale survey. We will carry out a 2-phase PACS study, surveying the fine 
structure lines of [CII]157um and [OI]63um in 274 objects, and following up the 
brightest sources with observations of H2O and [OI]145um. The gas mass sensitivity, 
a few 1e-5 Msun, will be more than an order of magnitude lower than achieved by ISO 
and Spitzer and expected for SOFIA. We will also measure the dust continuum to an 
equivalent mass sensitivity. Team members include experts in the modeling of disk 
structure, chemistry, and radiative transfer necessary to interpret these data. We 
will observe nearby clusters in the age range 1-30Myr, encompassing disk masses 
1e-2 - 1e-5 Msun, and stellar luminosity 1-100 Lsun. This covers the dominant epoch 
of planet formation and the mass from protoplanetary through to young debris disk. 
Furthermore our sample is chosen to include a wide range of X-ray & UV flux, and 
SED shape, from classical SED Class II, through "transition" disks with inner dust 
holes, to disks with small IR excesses. With this extensive dataset, our program 
will: - Trace gas and dust in the planet formation region across an extensive 
multivariate parameter space - Provide the first definitive measurement of the gas 
dissipation timescale in disks - Study the evolutionary link between protoplanetary 
and debris disks - Investigate the extent and evolution of warm H2O in the 
planet-forming regions of disks, with implications for the volatile content of 
developing planets - Provide an extensive database of disk observations and models 
with long-lasting legacy value for followup observations 

Proposal ID: KPOT_bmatthew_1
"DEBRIS: Disc Emission via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Sub-millimetre"
Principal Investigator: Brenda Matthews (Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics)
Debris discs are belts of dust particles created from collisions of planetesimals 
(comets and asteroids) in extrasolar planetary systems. The prototype disc around 
Vega was discovered ~25 years ago by IRAS, and ~20 discs have been imaged to date, 
primarily by HST, SCUBA and Spitzer. Despite the relatively low numbers, debris 
discs are seen to be extraordinarily diverse in character, including systems with 
vast populations of comets or with perturbations by planets at tens of AU from the 
host star. Due to this low number, however, our knowledge of debris discs is 
incomplete; there has been no unbiased survey specifically designed to image a large 
number of discs. Spitzer greatly improved our understanding of the disc-rich A stars 
but the number of detections is still low for solar-analogue FGK stars and especially 
the numerous M stars. For Herschel, we therefore propose the DEBRIS (``Disc Emission 
via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre") Key Project which will 
probe 450 nearby A-M stellar systems for debris and measure Solar System dust levels 
in debris discs for the first time. The large sample is statistically robust and 
without bias, providing a rich legacy for debris disc and exo-planet science. This 
deep, flux-limited survey will obtain PACS 100/160 images of all 450 systems (472 fields 
due to wide binaries), and it will be possible to resolve discs toward each one with 
the PACS' high resolution. DEBRIS includes SPIRE imaging in systems where debris is 
detected with PACS (a rate of 50% is expected). The key science questions are: 
(a) which kinds of stars have debris and why? (b) what are the sizes, temperatures 
and masses of the debris discs? (c) what is the relation of resolved disc structures 
to the exo-planets? and (d) is our Kuiper Belt common or unusual? The Herschel DEBRIS 
Key Project will answer these questions using Herschel's high sensitivity, spectral 
coverage and resolution. Our team includes world experts in debris discs and exo-planet 
science from 8 countries.

Proposal ID: KPOT_ceiroa_1
"Cold Disks around Nearby Stars. A Search for Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt analogues (DUNES: DUst disks around NEarby Stars)"
Principal Investigator: Carlos Eiroa (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid)
We plan to use the unique photometric capabilities provided by Herschel to perform a 
deep and systematic survey for faint, cold debris disks. We propose a sensitivity-limited 
Herschel Key Programme that aims at finding and characterizing faint exo-solar analogues 
to the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt in a statistical sample of 283 nearby main-sequence stars. 
Our sample is volume-limited (distances 25 pc) and covers a decade in stellar mass from 
0.2 to 2 solar masses (M- to A-type stars). This will provide an unprecedented lower 
limit to the fractional abundance of planetesimal systems, and act as a proxy to assess 
the presence of giant planets resembling the roles played by Neptune and Jupiter in the 
solar system. We will perform PACS and SPIRE photometric observations covering the 
wavelength range from 70 to 500 micron. PACS observations at 100 micron have been designed 
to detect the stellar photospheres down to the confusion noise with a signal to noise 
ratio at least 5. Observations in the other Herschel bands will allow us to characterize, 
model, and constrain the disks. As a result, it will be possible for us to reach 
fractional luminosities L(dust)/L(star) a few times 10^(-7), close to the EKB level in 
our solar system. The extensive and unique data set will allow us to address some 
fundamental questions related to exo-EKBs: - Dependence of planetesimal formation on 
stellar mass. - Collisional and dynamical evolution. - Correlation with planets. - Dust 
properties and size distribution. Herschel is the first and the only facility for the 
foreseeable future which is providing the observational capability required to successfully 
addressing the scientific case we are proposing. The outcome of this project has high 
science legacy and outreach values that will impact on studies related to planet formation 
and planetary systems. 

Proposal ID: KPOT_cmarti01_1
"HIGGS: The Herschel Inner Galaxy Gas Survey"
Principal Investigator: Christopher Martin (Oberlin College)
We will investigate the inflow of matter in the bulge of the Milky Way using the HIFI 
and PACS instruments on Herschel to observe [C II], [N II], [O I], [O III], and high-J 
CO emission lines to determine the relationship between central black holes and their 
host galactic bulges and thus the causes and mechanisms of starbursts. As Binney et al. 
(1991) have suggested, the gas in closed orbits in the bar of the Milky Way provides a 
means to study in detail the accretion processes leading to starbursts and active 
galactic nuclei. Shocks effectively transfer some fraction of the clouds' orbital kinetic 
energy into heat which escapes through dust continuum and line emission. By measuring 
this emission and characterizing the star formation that occurs under these unusual 
conditions, we can estimate the amount of orbital energy that has been dissipated and 
constrain estimates of the mass inflow from the decaying orbits. For this purpose high 
velocity resolution observations of interstellar cooling lines are required. In the 
following proposal we discuss how HIFI and PACS observations of [C II], [N II], [O I], 
[O III], and high-J CO lines can be combined with existing radio emission line surveys 
and far-infrared continuum surveys to identify and estimate the energy loss and resulting 
infall motions from clumps in the inner galaxy. Using existing submillimeter-wave spectral 
line surveys, we are able to identify those regions lying between 2 kpc and 200 pc of the 
Galactic center that are emitting significant terahertz line radiation, and we can 
therefore accomplish a comprehensive characterization of gas in the inner galaxy using 
pointed Herschel observations. As ALMA comes online, we will be able to use the 
understanding produced by this study to understand the gas dynamics of other galaxies and 
properly place them in context.

Proposal ID: KPOT_mjuvela_1
"Galactic Cold Cores: A Herschel survey of the source populations revealed by Planck"
Principal Investigator: Mika Juvela (University of Helsinki)
In this programme we propose to study starless cores and the initial conditions of star 
formation using the Herschel satellite and the combined power of its PACS and SPIRE 
instruments. As the starting point we have the Planck survey that will provide the first 
all-sky survey of Galactic cold and compact dust clouds. We will concentrate our study on 
mid- and high Galactic latitudes. Our program complements the accepted GT and proposed OT 
programs which target the most prominent regions already in the phase of active star 
formation. The main objective is to build a coherent observational database representing 
the entire cold core population in the Galaxy. 

Proposal ID: KPOT_nevans_1
"Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time (DIGIT)"
Principal Investigator: Neal Evans (The University of Texas at Austin)
Dust, ice, and gas evolve as they move from envelopes of forming stars into 
circumstellar disks where they can become the main building blocks of planets. 
Herschel-PACS is uniquely suited to trace this evolution through broadband emission 
from dust, through specific features of solids which reveal elemental composition 
and water content, and through spectral bands of the main icy components. Both atomic 
and molecular lines, in particular the [O I], H2O and OH lines, will be used to follow 
the gas, study the interchange between gas and ice, and trace the oxygen budget. The 
gas and dust spectral features are at the same time excellent probes of macroscopic 
parameters, such as temperature, UV and X-ray fields, density and thermal structures 
of envelopes and disks, and dynamical mixing processes. Our sample covers sources with 
a range in evolutionary state from embedded objects with massive envelopes to weak-line 
T Tauri stars with dissipating disks, and with a range in luminosity, spectral type, 
and dust characteristics. Both our high S/N PACS full spectral range scans (complemented 
by Spitzer mid-IR spectral scans) and our targeted, deep gas-phase line measurements 
will have lasting archival value.

Proposal ID: KPOT_pgolds01_1
"Herschel Oxygen Project"
Principal Investigator: Paul Goldsmith (Jet Propulsion Laboratory)
Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the Universe and as such it plays a 
decisive role in the chemistry and physics of molecular clouds. Chemical models have 
long predicted that some of the simplest molecules would be the primary reservoirs of 
oxygen in space: CO, H2O, and O2, and under these conditions would be major cloud 
coolants influencing the evolution of the cloud and the process of star formation. 
Molecular oxygen has remained elusive, with results from SWAS and Odin missions 
indicating abundances approximately two orders of magnitude below those predicted 
by standard gas phase chemistry models. The favored explanation is that oxygen atoms 
are tied up as water ice on grain surfaces in the cold, extended regions of clouds 
probed with the relatively large beams of previous space observatories. We propose 
to use Herschel HIFI to carry out a survey of regions in which the O2 abundance is 
predicted to be large due to reestablishment of standard gas phase chemistry. We will 
observe a selected group of sources including regions of heated gas surrounding embedded 
young stars, photon dominated regions, X-ray dominated regions, and shock-heated regions, 
in the 487 and 774 GHz lines of O2, and a subset of these in the 1121 GHz line. We expect 
that these sources will be of small angular size, and can be observed using beam switching 
in mini line survey mode, to enable sideband deconvolution and minimize interference 
from confusing lines of other species. The greatly improved sensitivity of HIFI receivers 
and the far smaller Herschel beam relative to SWAS and Odin allow us to probe these regions 
to levels below those predicted by sophisticated astrochemical models. By measuring the 
O2 abundance, we can verify important aspects of models of these regions, put constraints 
on key gas-grain interaction parameters, and probe critical chemistry and physics in 
regions that are tracers of recent and prospective star formation. 

Proposal ID: KPOT_smolinar_1
"Hi-GAL: the Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey"
Principal Investigator: Sergio Molinari (INAF - IFSI)
We propose to use SPIRE and PACS in parallel mode to carry out a 720 sq.deg. unbiased 
imaging survey of the entire Galactic Plane of the Milky Way, uniformly sampling a 2°-wide 
strip centered on the warped midplane in the 70, 170, 250, 350 and 500um photometric bands. 
The Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey (Hi-GAL) embodies the optimum combination of 
Herschel wavelength coverage, sensitivity, mapping strategy and speed to deliver, in a 
single and homogeneous dataset of the highest statistical significance, the ultimate 
census and characterisation (temperature, luminosity, mass and Spectral Energy Distribution) 
of star forming regions and cold ISM structures in all the environments of the Galactic 
ecosystem, at unprecedented resolutions, and at all scales from massive objects in 
protoclusters to the full spiral arm. This will enable decisive steps toward the formulation 
of a global predictive model of the ISM/star formation cyclic transformation process which 
is the engine responsible for most of the energy budget in normal star-forming galaxies. 
It will be a cornerstone to unveil the evolution of galaxies through redshift back to their 
formation. Hi-GAL will also deliver a dataset of extraordinary legacy value for decades to 
come, with a strong potential of systematic and serendipitous science in a wide range of 
astronomical fields, and enabling the optimum use of future major facilities such as ALMA. 
In addition to a suite of enhanced products, including mosaiced images and source catalogues 
in all bands, we will create an immediate legacy value by waiving the totality of our 
proprietary time. The complete 60-600um view of the Milky Way at 10-35" resolution will be 
unique to Herschel, as it is beyond the capabilities of all of the future planned ground-based 
and space-borne facilities either for highest resolution (ALMA, SPIRIT, FIRI and SPECS 
interferometers) or for highest sensitivity (SPICA and SAFIR actively cooled single-dishes).

Proposal ID: KPOT_tmegeath_2
"The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS)"
Principal Investigator: Tom Megeath (University of Toledo)
Understanding protostellar evolution is a necessary step toward characterizing the factors 
which ultimately determine the properties of emerging stars and their planetary systems. 
We propose PACS imaging and spectroscopy of protostars identified in Spitzer surveys of the 
Orion molecular cloud complex. This is the richest known sample of protostars at a common 
distance within 450 pc of the Sun. Deep PACS 70 and 160 micron imaging will be obtained for 
283 protostars ranging in luminosity from 0.1 to 1000 Lsun and spanning the Class 0, 
Class I and flat spectrum evolutionary phases. The high sensitivity and angular resolution 
will enable us to measure bolometric luminosities in crowded fields, removing potentially 
significant contributions from external heating. In concert with existing near-IR and Spitzer 
mid-IR images and spectra, the deep PACS imaging will be used to determine the fundamental 
properties of the protostellar envelopes and disks (properties such as envelope structure, 
density and angular momentum, disk luminosity). PACS spectroscopy of 37 protostars will be 
used to measure water vapor, OH and O lines arising in the envelope, in the accretion shock 
onto the central protostellar disk, and in outflows. These data will provide an unparalleled 
view of the flow of material from the envelope onto the disk, through the disk to the star, 
and away from the star in outflows. The Orion molecular cloud complex contains an 
exceptionally wide range of parental gas conditions (i.e. initial conditions) and environments 
(from dense clusters to relatively isolated protostars). By comparing the properties of 
protostars in different regions of Orion clouds; we will assess the roles of initial conditions, 
environment and feedback from outflows in guiding protostellar evolution. These observations 
will produce a unique legacy dataset for guiding and testing a theory of protostellar evolution. 

Proposal ID: KPOT_wlanger_1
"State of the Diffuse ISM: Galactic Observations of the Terahertz 
CII Line (GOT CPlus)"
Principal Investigator: William Langer (Jet Propulsion Laboratory)
Star formation activity throughout the Galactic disk depends on the thermal and dynamical 
state of the interstellar gas, which in turn depends on heating and cooling rates, modulated 
by the gravitational potential and shock and turbulent pressures. Molecular cloud formation, 
and thus the star formation, may be regulated by pressures in the interstellar medium (ISM). 
To understand these processes we need information about the properties of the diffuse atomic 
and diffuse molecular gas clouds, and Photon Dominated Regions (PDR). An important tracer of 
these regions is the CII line at 158 microns (1900.5 GHz). We propose a "pencil-beam" survey 
of CII with HIFI band 7b, based on deep integrations and systematic sparse sampling of the 
Galactic disk plus selected targets, totaling over 900 lines of sight. We will detect both 
emission and, against the bright inner Galaxy and selected continuum sources, absorption lines. 
These spectra will provide the astronomical community with a large rich statistical database 
of the diffuse cloud properties throughout the Galaxy for understanding the Milky Way ISM and, 
by extension, other galaxies. It will be extremely valuable for determining the properties of 
the atomic gas, the role of barometric pressure and turbulence in cloud evolution, and the 
properties of the interface between the atomic and molecular clouds. The CII line is one of 
the major ISM cooling lines and is present throughout the Galactic plane. It is the strongest 
far-IR emission line in the Galaxy, with a total luminosity about a 1000 times that of the 
CO J=1-0 line. Combined with other data, it can be used to determine density, pressure, and 
radiation environment in gas clouds, and PDRs, and their dynamics via velocity fields. HSO 
is the best opportunity over the next several years to probe the ISM in this tracer and will 
provide a template for large-scale surveys with dedicated small telescopes and future surveys 
of other important ISM tracers. 



Proposal ID: KPOT_aedge_1
"Constraining the cold gas and dust in Cluster Cooling Flows"
Principal Investigator: Alastair Edge (University of Durham)
A major cosmological event is the formation of first massive galaxies, 
which evolve to the luminous elliptical galaxies of today. Star formation 
in these galaxies was regulated and ultimately stifled by energetic AGN 
feedback processes, according to simulations. However, the nature of these 
processes is open to speculation because at these enormous distances, 
observations provide few constraints. Similar processes occur in some low 
redshift galaxy clusters where star formation and cold gas is detected in 
and around the brightest cluster galaxies. These modern-day analogs provide 
us with the opportunity to understand the heating, cooling, and star 
formation that occur on a grand scale at high redshift. In this Herschel 
Key Project, we will determine the location and mass of cooled gas, along 
with its temperature, ionization state, density and cooling rate. These new 
data, only possible with Herschel, are supplemented by radio, X-ray, and 
optical studies of the stars, hot gas, and AGN activity. To accomplish our 
goals, we will use PACS to measure the line strengths of [OI], [OIII], [NII], 
[CII] and [SiI], major coolants at low temperatures that also reflect the 
ionization state of the gas. The requested PACS and SPIRE photometry will 
determine the distribution of dust temperatures and masses, including the 
detection of the coolest gas clouds. These datasets will reveal the pathway 
from the hot ambient medium to cool gas to star formation, a process that 
was widespread when the universe was young.

Proposal ID: KPOT_ckrame01_1
"Herschel M33 extended survey (HERMES): star-formation interplay with the ISM"
Principal Investigator: Carsten Kramer (KOSMA, Universitaet zu Koeln)
In the local universe, most of the observable matter is contained in stellar objects 
shaping the morphology and dynamics of their "parent" galaxy. In view of the dominance 
of stellar mass, a better understanding of star formation and its consequences is 
mandatory and forms a central topic of contemporary astrophysical research. There exist 
a large number of high linear resolution studies related to individual star forming 
regions of the Galaxy as well as of low linear resolution studies of external galaxies. 
For a complete view onto the physical and chemical processes driving star formation 
and galactic evolution it is, however, essential to combine local conditions affecting 
individual star formation with properties only becoming apparent on global scales. 
The optimal target providing such a complete view is a galaxy that is actively forming 
stars, that is not seen edge-on (like our Galaxy), that has been studied at radio, 
optical and X-ray wavelengths, and that is sufficiently nearby to also permit studies 
on small scales. For our carefully chosen template galaxy, we plan to use HIFI to obtain 
fully-sampled large-scale [CII] (and H2O) maps. PACS will add important interstellar 
cooling lines, [OI], [NII], [NIII]. And SPIRE & PACS will be used to map the dust 
spectral energy distribution over the entire galaxy. Observing a deep, extended strip 
along the major axis of our template galaxy M33, will allow us to study the ionized, 
atomic, and molecular phases of the interstellar medium, its life cycle and thermal 
balance, tracing the formation of molecular clouds and of stars. Aside of insights 
related to the local processes in the galaxy itself, the mapped source will set a 
standard, providing a basis for the interpretation of phenomena encountered in other 
targets of the Local Group and in more distant galaxies.

Proposal ID: KPOT_eegami_1
"The Herschel Lensing Survey"
Principal Investigator: Eiichi Egami (University of Arizona)
For deep imaging longward of 100 um, confusion noise sets the fundamental sensitivity 
limits achievable with Herschel, and these limits cannot be improved by integrating 
longer. As a result, Herschel PACS/SPIRE images will not quite reach the depth of 
Spitzer 24 um, not to mention that of ALMA. This means that with the raw sensitivities 
of PACS and SPIRE, it will be difficult to reach the population of infrared-luminous 
galaxies at z>2. To penetrate through the Herschel confusion limits with the lensing 
power of massive galaxy clusters and to reach z>2 infrared-luminous galaxies, we 
propose here a deep PACS/SPIRE imaging survey of 40 lensing clusters, which have 
carefully been selected from the past and on-going HST/Spitzer surveys. Although both 
the PACS and SPIRE GT teams will conduct similar surveys, its small sample size of 
10 clusters is not enough to fully achieve the great potential of such a survey since 
highly magnified (e.g., >5-10x) lensed galaxies are rare. By expanding the sample 
size by a factor of four, and by pre-selecting most spectacular sources from our 
on-going Spitzer 24um survey of ~100 X-ray-luminous (i.e., massive) clusters, we will 
detect a significant number of highly magnified infrared-luminous galaxies at z>2 with 
PACS and SPIRE, which will enable us to (1) resolve a large fraction of the 
far-infrared/submillimeter background in the PACS/SPIRE bands and (2) map out the full 
spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of detected galaxies from mid-infrared to 
submillimter. Such an extensive survey of lensing clusters will be a great legacy of 
Herschel, providing a large number of interesting high-redshift targets for ALMA 
follow-up in the future. Because of the large sample size and strong lensing power of 
the targeted clusters, this survey also offers a great potential for breakthrough 
discoveries such as the first detection of a star-forming (i.e., non-AGN) galaxy at z>>4 
in the far-infrared/submillimeter. 

Proposal ID: KPOT_gsmith01_1
"LoCuSS: A Legacy Survey of Galaxy Clusters at z=0.2"
Principal Investigator: Graham Smith (University of Birmingham)
We propose a definitive census of obscured star formation in intermediate redshift 
clusters and its relationship with the recent mass assembly and thermodynamic histories 
of the clusters. Specifically, we propose to use Herschel/PACS observations at 100 and 
160um in conjunction with our Spitzer 24um data to characterize the dust-obscured 
galaxy populations (star formation rate, AGN contamination, bolometric IR luminosity, 
dust temperature) in a large unbiased sample of galaxy clusters at 0.15 0.3. The sample 
of 32 clusters is drawn from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS) for which 
outstanding supporting data are available, including gravitational lensing, X-ray 
spectro-imaging, and Spitzer 24um maps. This unprecedented dataset on a large and 
unbiased cluster sample will enable us to answer definitively the question: "what 
physical process(es) are responsible for triggering obscured star-formation in cluster 
galaxies?". The enduring legacy will be a baseline study of the demographics of 
low-intermediate redshift clusters against which to compare and thus interpret the 
rapidly growing menagerie of high redshift cluster observations. This will be achieved 
through a series of public data releases, that will include quantities derived from the 
Herschel data (e.g. L_IR, T_dust) and from our huge investment in supporting data 
(e.g. dark matter density, galaxy redshifts, galaxy morphologies). All of this can be 
achieved with a "modest" Key Programme of 145 hours duration. 

Proposal ID: KPOT_jdavie01_1
"Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS)"
Principal Investigator: Jonathan Davies (Cardiff University)
We are proposing to make a fully sampled map of about 60 sq deg of the nearby Virgo 
galaxy cluster using both PACS and SPIRE (PMODE). This will provide a wavelength coverage 
in five bands from about 100 to 600 microns. We estimate that we will detect about 
400 galaxies at 250 micron. Our science interests include: a) The detection of dust 
in the intra-cluster medium, b) Extended cold dust around galaxies. c) FIR-submm 
luminosity functions, d) The UV to sub-mm spectral energy distribution of galaxies of 
various morphological types, e) The detection of dust in dwarf and giant elliptical galaxies.

Proposal ID: KPOT_mmeixner_1
"HERschel Inventory of The Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) in the 
Magellanic Clouds"
Principal Investigator: Margaret Meixner (Space Telescope Science Institute)
We propose a uniform survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC, 8x8.5 degrees), 
Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC, 5x5 degrees), and the Magellanic bridge (4x3 degrees) 
in SPIRE 250, 350, 500 um and PACS 100 and 160 um bands, and PACS spectroscopy of 
key neutral gas regions in order to produce a HERschel Inventory of The Agents of 
Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE), the interstellar medium (ISM) and massive stars. 
Herschel images will provide key insights into the life cycle of galaxies because 
the far-infrared and submm emission from dust grains is an effective tracer of the 
coldest ISM dust, the most deeply embedded young stellar objects (YSOs), and the dust 
ejected over the lifetime of massive stars. The ISM dust map will directly measure 
dust on a scale size of individual regions (~10pc, ~5-20 K) with column 
densities >0.85x10^{21} and >6x10^{21} H-atoms cm^{-2} for the LMC and SMC, 
respectively. Dust emission per beam will be detected for regions 
with >0.1 Msun at ~25 K, >5 Msun of 10 K. The [CII] 158, [OI] 63, 146 
and [NII] 122 um lines in combination with the total far-infrared emission will 
1) probe the physical conditions in the warm neutral medium and photodissociation regions, 
2) clarify the origin of [CII] emission in low-metallicity galaxies and 
3) constrain the physical conditions of the ISM gas required for star formation. 
HERITAGE will complete 1) the census of massive YSOs down to >4 Msun Class 0 sources 
and 2) the inventory of dust injected into the ISM by massive evolved stars and supernova 
remnants (SNRs). The variation in dust properties discerned from the dust maps and the 
measurements of the main cooling lines of the SNR shocks will quantify their effect on 
the interstellar grain size distribution. HERITAGE will create an archival data set that 
promises a lasting legacy to match current LMC and SMC surveys at other wavelengths. 
HERITAGE will bridge the gap between Herschel studies of the Milky Way and those of 
nearby galaxies and provide a template for high red shift galaxies.

Proposal ID: KPOT_pvanderw_1
"A Herschel survey of molecular lines in (U)LIRGs: physical conditions, 
the nature of the power source, and a benchmark for high-z observations"
Principal Investigator: Paul van der Werf (Leiden Observatory)
The key diagnostic of the warm star-forming molecular clouds in galaxies is provided by 
their cooling radiation: [CII] and [OI] lines, but also lines of CO, the main tracer of 
molecular gas. While in our Galaxy cooling by CO lines is unimportant, this situation is 
totally different in local ULIRGs, where the CO is an important coolant, and the thermal 
balance is totally different from that in our Galaxy. These results demonstrate the 
enormous, as yet almost unexplored, diagnostic power of these lines for probing physical 
conditions. Since these lines are very luminous, they can be used to probe galaxies out 
to very high redshifts. Here we propose a systematic study with the SPIRE-FTS and PACS of 
the principal neutral gas cooling lines ([CII], [OI] and the CO ladder from 5-4 to 13-12) 
in a 60 micron flux-limited sample of 32 galaxies: 24 LIRGs and 8 ULIRGs. Aims of this 
key project are: - analysis of the neutral gas cooling budget, in particular the relative 
importance of CO and [CII] emission; - analysis of the CO rotational ladder to derive the 
mass of molecular gas as a function of temperature and density; - modeling of the data 
using advanced PDR/XDR models with the goal of separating UV-excited (starburst) and X-ray 
excited (AGN) components; - analysis of the implications for molecular mass measurements 
based on CO lines, both at low and high redshift; - achieving statistical robustness, so 
that inferences can be made on the infrared galaxy population in general, and trends with 
other galaxy characteristics (IR luminosity, type of power source,...) can be traced. 
Only Herschel can provide the necessary high-J CO and cooling line data. Combined with our 
extensive ground-based data (low-J CO, HCN lines) this dataset will elucidate the energy 
source and physical conditions in local ULIRGs, and establish the critical link necessary 
for the interpretation of observations of high-z galaxies in mid-J CO lines and other 
luminous lines, which will become routine in the ALMA era. 

Proposal ID: KPOT_rkennicu_1
"Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH)"
Principal Investigator: Robert Kennicutt (University of Cambridge)
We propose the KINGFISH project (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Survey 
with Herschel) of nearby (D30 Mpc) galaxies mostly drawn from the SINGS sample, which span 
a large range of star forming (SF) environments found in the nearby Universe. KINGFISH will 
provide for the first time (1) imaging across the peak of the dust SED at a spatial 
resolution that matches individual SF complexes, and (2) spectroscopic maps of key 
diagnostic lines to constrain the cooling and heating processes of the warm neutral medium 
and the obscured ionized ISM. The PACS and SPIRE imaging from 75 to 500 microns will 
produce the first comprehensive census of dust in different galactic environments on a 
spatially resolved basis. KINGFISH's spectral line mapping will sample the full range of 
SF environments in regions that have already been targeted by SINGS IRS mapping. Leveraging 
the synergy between imaging and spectroscopy, KINGFISH will provide robust measures of the 
bolometric luminosity and star formation rates, the mass and spatial distribution of cold 
dust and the relevance of different heating mechanisms in the energy balance of the dust 
in distinctly different environments. Measurements of [CII]158 micron, [OI]63 micron, 
[OIII]88 micron, and [NII]122, 205 micron, will finally provide the diagnostics needed to 
understand two crucial, but so far ill-understood, components of the star formation and 
feedback matter cycle: the warm neutral medium and the obscured ionized medium. The 
analysis and modeling of KINGFISH's imaging and spectroscopy will draw on the unique 
expertise from the Spitzer SINGS survey at shorter wavelengths. The resulting dataset will 
be of immense astrophysical power and enormous long-term legacy value, bringing us a 
crucial step closer to understanding star formation and energy feedback on scales of galaxies. 
It will also provide an invaluable foundation for interpreting observations of more distant 
galaxies with Herschel, ALMA, and other facilities. 



Proposal ID: KPOT_seales01_2
"The Herschel Thousand Degree Survey (aka H-ATLAS)"
Principal Investigator: Stephen Eales (Cardiff University)
We still know little about dust in the nearby universe, because IRAS was only sensitive 
to the 10% of dust warm enough to radiate in the far-IR, and submm surveys have not covered 
enough area to sample a representative volume of the local universe. We propose to use 
Herschel to survery 1000 square degrees in five bands. The survey will detect ~100,000 
galaxies at z 0.3, and we will use the results in six key projects: (1) By using the the 
SDSS and 2dFGRS redshifts that will exist for half the galaxies, we will carry out an 
unprecedented study of dust and dust-obscured star formation in the nearby universe, 
determining for example how these depend on Hubble type, metallicity and environment. 
We will also measure the submm luminosity function, a key benchmark for galaxy evolution 
models, and test 'down-sizing'models by investigating the cosmic evolution that is known 
to have occurred over the last 3 billion years. (2) We will detemine the relative 
contributions of the SZ effect and dusty galaxies in Planck sources, which will make it 
possible to measure the number-density and bulk flows of clusters in the high-z universe - 
two fundamental tests of the cosmological paradigm. (3) Using the largest ever sample of 
gravitational lenses (~1000), we will investigate the evolution of the mass profiles of 
galaxies, another key test of cosmological models. (4) We will investigate the relationship 
between the formation of the black holes and stars in quasars by observing the 20,000 
SDSS quasars in our fields. (5) By measuring the structure of the submm sky up to a scale 
of 1000 Mpc, we will estimate the masses of the dark-matter halos containing the far-IR/submm 
sources. (6) We will carry out the first census of dust and protostars at high galactic 
latitudes. Our fields are the best-studied large fields in the sky and will be the targets 
of future surveys with VISTA, VST, UKIRT, SPT and the SKA-precusor telescopes, KAT, ASKAP 
and LOFAR, and so the survey will be of immense legacy value.

Proposal ID: KPOT_delbaz_1
"The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey: far-infrared imaging with Herschel"
Principal Investigator: David Elbaz (CEA Saclay)
The bolometric energy emerging from dusty star formation and active galactic nuclei (AGN) 
peaks at far-infrared wavelengths, which current deep surveys have barely been able to 
touch. Prior to Herschel, the best observations have been made at wavelengths that are 
either too long (submm) or too short (mid-IR) to detect the bulk of this emission. 
While planned Herschel surveys will advance the study of the most luminous objects, 
they will not be sensitive enough to explore the typical star forming galaxies from 
z=1 to 4 as well as to identify obscured AGN. We propose ultra-deep PACS imaging, 
complemented with SPIRE observations, to push the imaging potential of Herschel to its 
limits in the GOODS fields where the deepest probes at all other wavelengths are also 
(and will be) located. The 100 micron capability of PACS is uniquely matched to the needs 
of observing at or near the peak of redshifted emission from star formation and AGN 
activity, while avoiding the worst effects of confusion. With the proposed survey we will: 
(1) resolve most of the cosmic star formation rate density up to z~4 ; 
(2) determine definitively star formation rates in both IR and UV selected galaxies down 
to the level where both SFR agree, up to z1.5 and potentially up to z~4 ; 
(3) identify the Compton-thick AGN responsible for the missing part of the cosmic X-ray 
background that remains unresolved in current surveys. Observing two widely separated fields 
will offset the effects of cosmic variance. 
The proposed observations will be fully 3 times deeper than the planned GT GOODS-South 
survey, reaching 0.6 mJy (5 sigma) at 100 micron over 1/3 of each GOODS field. 
We additionally propose modest PACS and SPIRE imaging to bring the coverage of the complete 
GOODS-N up to the level of the GT GOODS-S survey. By conducting the proposed survey in the 
GOODS fields, the resulting dataset will have lasting legacy and archival value.