Overview of KP GT proposals

SCIENCE CATEGORY: Solar system (1)


Proposal ID: KPGT_pharto01_1	
"Water and Related Chemistry in the Solar System"
Principal Investigator: 
Paul Hartogh (Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research)
Water is ubiquitous in the Solar System, being present in gaseous form in 
all planetary and cometary atmospheres, as ice on the surface and subsurface 
of Mars, comets, most planetary satellites and distant bodies, and in the 
liquid phase on Earth. Water plays an important or dominant role in the 
chemistry of planetary and cometary atmospheres. Comets are sources of water 
for planets through episodic collisions and continuous production of ice-dust 
grains. This proposal addresses the broad topic of water and its isotopologues
in planetary and cometary atmospheres. The nature of cometary activity and the
thermodynamics of cometary comae will be investigated by studying water 
excitation in a sample of comets. The D/H ratio, the key for constraining the 
origin and evolution of Solar System species, will be measured for the first 
time in a Jupiter- family comet. A comparison with existing and new 
measurements of D/H in Oort-cloud comets will constrain the composition of 
pre-solar cometary grains and possibly the dynamics of the protosolar nebula. 
New measurements of D/H in Giant Planets, similarly constraining the 
composition of proto-planetary ices, will be obtained. The D/H and other 
isotopic ratios, diagnostic of Mars' atmosphere evolution, will be accurately 
measured in H2O and CO. The role of water vapor in Mars' atmospheric chemistry
 will be studied by monitoring vertical profiles of H2O and HDO and by 
searching for several other species. A detailed study of the source of water
 in the upper atmosphere of the Giant Planets and Titan will be performed. By 
monitoring the water abundance, vertical profile, and input fluxes in the 
various objects, and when possible with the help of mapping observations, we 
will discriminate between the possible sources of water in the outer planets 
(interplanetary dust particles, cometary impacts, and local sources). In 
addition to these inter-connected objectives, serendipitous searches will 
enhance our knowledge of the composition of planetary and cometary 

SCIENCE CATEGORY: ISM/Star formation (10)


Proposal ID: KPGT_aabergel_1	
"Evolution of interstellar dust"
Principal Investigator:
Alain Abergel (Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS)
The scientific motivation for this proposal is to trace the evolution of 
dust grains in relation to changes of the physical, dynamical and chemical 
properties of the interstellar medium. This program will provide an 
unprecedented view of the structure of the ISM at far-infrared and 
submillimeter wavelengths and will enable us to investigate the impact of 
dust grains on the ISM physical and chemical state. The program will take 
full advantage of four unique characteristics of SPIRE and PACS: brightness 
sensitivity, wavelength coverage, angular resolution, and mapping efficiency. 
The brightness sensitivity is essential to measure the faint infrared 
emission from the diffuse regions. The spectrometers will provide the 
necessary information to derive the physical properties of the atomic and 
molecular gas and completely characterize dust evolution. The angular 
resolution is critical for tracing the dominant processes in grain evolution 
which takes place on all scales down to a few arcseconds. The data statistics
will allow us to probe the impact of extreme physical conditions, e.g., high 
densities, intense vortices or illumination, on the dust evolution. Our goal 
is to build with Herschel a coherent database on interstellar dust emission 
extending to much smaller angular scales than the IRAS and DIRBE surveys and 
covering a wide range of ISM physical conditions, from diffuse clouds to the 
sites of star formation and protostars. The program is supported by 
state-of-art modelling of the dust emission and physical processes acting on 
dust as well as by on-going laboratory measurements of the grains properties 
at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. The Herschel observations will 
benefit from ground-based ancillary data (HI and CO) and from Spitzer programs
yielding a full description of the spectral energy distribution of 
interstellar dust from the near-infrared to the submillimeter. 

Proposal ID: KPGT_cceccare_1	
"HIFI Spectral Surveys of Star Forming Regions"
Principal Investigator:
Cecilia Ceccarelli (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble)
Study of the molecular content of regions far beyond our Solar System has 
advanced enormously during the last few decades, from the first detections 
of diatomic molecules to the discovery of polyatomic, complex organic 
molecules. Nowadays, one major goal of Astrochemistry is to have the most 
accurate census of the molecular content (and complexity) in Star Forming 
Regions (SFRs). In the era of the molecular content census, unbiased spectral 
surveys in the radio to Infrared of SFRs have become a fundamental and 
necessary tool in modern astrochemistry research. In this context, the 
frequency range covered by HSO-HIFI, 500-2000 GHz, is of particular 
importance. It is in this frequency range that light molecules have their 
ground and low energy transitions, whereas heavier molecules have higher 
energy transitions. The latter are excited in the warm gas, whereas the 
former probe the gas at low temperatures as well. It is therefore in the 
HIFI frequency range that the major gas coolants (notably H$_2$O) and some 
key components of the chemical composition of SFRs emit. We propose to 
obtain Spectral Surveys in the HSO-HIFI range of a representative sample of 
SFRs. To have a meaningful coverage of the different evolutionary stages and
different masses requires a large amount of time, about 300 hrs. The proposed 
observations will provide a large dataset of uttermost interest for the 
entire astronomical community, and, particularly for the study of star 
formation processes and of the influence of chemistry on star and planet 
formation. These two basic aspects, a large requested observing time and an 
output of high archival value, make the present proposal suitable for a HSO 
Key Program.

proposal ID: KPGT_ebergin_1	
"HEXOS: Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources: The Orion and Sgr B2 Star-Forming Regions"
Principal Investigator:  
Edwin Bergin (University of Michigan)
As a GT Key Program we propose to perform full HIFI and PACS line surveys of 
5 sources in the giant molecular clouds Orion and Sagittarius B2. These 
extraordinary star-forming regions contain the best studied examples of 
physical and chemical processes prevalent in the interstellar medium, 
including gravitational compression, thermal and turbulent pressure support, 
photodissociation, gas and grain chemistry in dense and diffuse quiescent gas,
and shocks. With high excitation, rich chemistry, and large molecular column
they give the highest chance for new detections in a sensitive search for new 
molecules. Line surveys of sources (Orion KL, Orion S, Orion Bar, Sgr B2 N+M) 
defined by these phenomena form the backbone of this proposed program. 
Herschel offers unprecedented sensitivity and relative calibration accuracy, 
as well as continuous spectral coverage across the gaps imposed by the 
atmosphere, opening up a largely unexplored wavelength regime to high 
resolution spectroscopy. These data will take line surveys to a new level 
and we will use them to comprehensively characterize the physics (density, 
thermal balance, kinematics, radiation field) and chemistry (chemical assay, 
ionization, deuterium fractionation, water ortho/para ratio) of star-forming 
molecular gas in a manner not previously possible. The opening of this 
spectral range is also an opportunity to detect the bending transitions of 
carbon chains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, along with the rotational 
transitions of complex organics. Given that these sources have the richest 
emission spectra seen for star-forming regions in the Galaxy, we anticipate 
that the proposed observations will define the sub-millimeter/far infrared 
region of the spectrum and that these data will form a lasting Herschel 

Proposal ID: KPGT_evandish_1
"Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH)"
Principal Investigator:
Ewine van Dishoeck (Sterrewacht Leiden)
Water is a key molecule for determining the physical and chemical structure 
of star-forming regions because of its large abundance variations --both in 
the gas and in the ice-- between warm and cold regions. In this HIFI-led Key 
Program, we propose a comprehensive set of water observations toward a large 
sample of well-characterized protostars, covering a wide range of masses and 
luminosities -- from the lowest to the highest mass protostars -- and a large 
range of evolutionary stages -- from the first stages represented by the 
pre-stellar cores to the last stages represented by the pre-main sequence 
stars surrounded only by their protostellar disks. Lines of H2O, H218O, 
H217O and chemically related hydrides will be observed. In addition, selected 
high-frequency lines of CO isotopes, [O I] as well as dust continuum maps 
will be obtained with HIFI and PACS, and will be complemented by ground-based 
HDO, CO and continuum maps to ensure a self-consistent data set for analysis. 
Limited mapping information on arcmin scale provides information on local 
variations due to outflows and clustered star formation. Together, the data 
will elucidate the physical processes responsible for the warm gas, probe 
dynamical processes associated with forming stars and planets, reveal the 
chemical evolution of water and the oxygen-reservoir, and test basic gas-grain
chemical interactions. They will form an unique legacy for the community as 
a complement to future ground-based programs and for planning future space 

Proposal ID: KPGT_fmotte_1	
"HOBYS: the Herschel imaging survey of OB Young Stellar objects"
Principal Investigator:
Frédérique Motte (SAp/CEA Saclay)
With its unprecedented spatial resolution in the critical 75-500 microns 
wavelength range, Herschel will provide a unique opportunity to determine, 
for the first time, the fundamental properties of the precursors of OB stars 
at distances out to a few kpc. The imaging speed of SPIRE and PACS in the 
parallel mode will enable us to map the entire extent of massive cloud 
complexes and detect the massive young stellar objects which have been 
overlooked by IRAS and Spitzer, i.e. the high-mass infrared-quiet protostars 
and pre-stellar cores. We propose to use SPIRE and PACS to image essentially 
all of the regions forming OB-type stars at distances 3 kpc from the Sun 
(total area of 22~deg^2). To complement this imaging survey, we propose to 
take smaller photometric and spectroscopic maps with PACS toward a handful 
of isolated regions that display triggered star formation. The 75/110/170 
micronsPACS and 250/350/500 microns SPIRE images of this project will provide 
an unbiased census of both massive pre-stellar cores and massive Class~0-like
protostars, and will trace the large-scale emission of the surrounding clouds.
This survey will yield for the first time accurate far-infrared photometry, 
and thus good luminosity and mass estimates, for a comprehensive, homogeneous 
sample of OB-type young stellar objects at all evolutionary stages. The 
multi-wavelength imaging will also reveal spatial variations of the cloud 
temperature close to HII regions and OB associations. These data, along with 
the detailed photometric and spectroscopic study of a few prototypical regions
of induced star formation, will allow us to determine the importance of 
external triggers for high-mass star formation in the nearest massive 
molecular cloud complexes. This Herschel Key Programme is crucially needed 
to better understand the formation of OB-type stars and will provide the basis
for many follow-up studies. In addition, the data will provide templates for 
galactic studies of star formation, both in our Galaxy and others. 

Proposal ID: KPGT_golofs01_1	
"Stellar Disk Evolution" 
Principal Investigator:
Göran Olofsson (Stockholm Observatory)
In a collaboration between the HSC, P. Harvey (Mission Scientist) and the 
three instrument consortia we propose to apply the full power of Herschel 
to investigate the properties of circum-stellar disks. The versatility of 
Herschel allows us to address several key questions: How do the disks evolve 
with time? Planets clearly form out of circum-stellar disks and there is 
growing evidence that the time scale is short, 1 - 10 Myr, for the main 
accretion phase. During this time period, the stellar radiation and stellar 
winds clean the disks from most of their dust and gas, eventually making them 
transparent. However, collisions and evaporation from comet- like bodies will 
continue to produce dust and gas. This activity declines with time, and we 
will pursue this scenario by observing a sample of IR excess stars of known 
age, ranging from a few million years to the age of the sun. Are there 
analogues to our Kuiper belt around nearby stars? The Kuiper belt is a dust 
belt surrounding the Sun, located outside the orbit of Neptune, which has a 
key role in stabilizing orbits of the KE-objects and this dynamical aspect 
makes it particularly interesting to search for stars that may host KE-belt 
analogues. Herschel offers a unique sensitivity beyond 100 µm and we propose 
an extensive survey of nearby stars seeking cold dust emission. What will a 
closer IR look at the "Fabulous Four" (and some other resolved disks) reveal? 
Several nearby MS stars with IR excesses have circumstellar dust structures 
that can be resolved by Herschel. Imaging these structures in the six 
PACS+SPIRE bands will enable us to explore the dust properties, notably the 
size distribution and albedo.. What is the composition of young disks? We 
propose a detailed spectroscopic investigation of four bright disks, including
a full spectral scan with PACS, an FTS scan at full resolution and HIFI 
observations of selected frequencies. The aim is to constrain the properties 
of both the dust and gas components. 

Proposal ID: KPGT_mgerin_1	
"PRISMAS: PRobing InterStellar Molecules with Absorption line Studies"
Principal Investigator: 
Maryvonne Gerin (Observatoire de Paris and École Normale Supérieure)
We will carry out a comprehensive spectroscopic study of key molecular line
carriers, probing interstellar hydrides and carbon chains. Our investigation
will entail high-resolution HIFI spectroscopy of some 25 molecules towards 8
sources, and full spectral scans with PACS. The target hydrides contain the
elements H, D, C, N, O, F and Cl. We will take advantage of the strong dust
emission from massive star forming regions to detect multiple absorption
components from foreground clouds of diverse properties that are known to
intersect the selected sight-lines, along with emission and absorption
intrinsic to the background sources. Our investigation will provide a wealth of
new information about interstellar hydrides -- addressing key puzzles posed by
previous observations from the ground since the 1940's, and recently with ISO,
SWAS, and ODIN -- and leaving an important Herschel legacy to astrochemistry
and ISM science. We will address the role of high temperature chemical
reactions in the formation of interstellar molecules, and the question of how
such reactions might be driven. We will also investigate the role of grain
surface reactions in interstellar chemistry, and the growth of carbon
molecules, bridging the gap between molecules and aggregates, as unique
spectroscopic signatures of carbon chains and rings, are accessible in the
FIR. Many of the lines that are detectable with Herschel in the local Universe
become accessible to ground-based observatories for redshifted sources. Our
programme will provide an unique benchmark for the studies of molecular gas at
high redshift with ALMA.

Proposal ID: KPGT_okrause_1	
"The earliest phases of star formation: From low- to high-mass objects"
Principal Investigator:
Oliver Krause (Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie)
Present-day star formation starts in the coldest and densest cores of 
molecular clouds. Still, our knowledge about the very early stages of 
star formation is limited. Objects at these stages emit most of their 
luminosity at FIR wavelengths, which is not observable from the ground. 
Hence, our view in this wavelength range to date remains fuzzy at best, 
since all available information from the FIR is generally obtained from 
small aperture satellites severely lacking spatial resolution. Therefore, 
data are strongly affected by source blending, especially within 
protoclusters, where the density of potential protostars is very high. This 
limits the derivation of core masses and density profiles which is a major 
drawback for detailed studies of young low-mass cores. In addition, it has 
severely hampered progress in characterising young and cold high-mass cores 
which are, on average, far more distant. Nevertheless, detailed knowledge 
about these pre- and protostellar stages is indispensable for answering 
fundamental questions about the physics of the early collapse phase, the 
core fragmentation and the general ways to finally form stars of all masses. 
With Herschel we have the unique opportunity to deeply scrutinise such cold 
cradles of stars with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution in the 
FIR. We therefore propose to use the PACS and SPIRE instruments to perform 
deep and directed FIR mapping of confined regions. We have compiled a unique 
sample of low and high-mass targets that we identified based on careful 
preparatory studies (including ISO and Spitzer observations) as very 
promising sources for the study of initial conditions of star formation. 
The Herschel data will allow us to reconstruct the (3D) density and 
temperature structure and assess the energy budget of the cores. Furthermore,
Herschel will for the first time enable us to perform an advanced modelling 
of such cold cores that is not affected by simplifications and parameter 

Proposal ID: KPGT_pandre_1
"Probing the origin of the stellar initial mass function: A wide-field Herschel photometric survey of nearby star-forming cloud complexes"
Principal Investigator: 
Philippe Andre (SAp/CEA Saclay)
Herschel provides a unique opportunity to study the earliest stages of star 
formation. What is the origin of the stellar initial mass function (IMF)? 
This issue is central in local star formation research and for understanding 
whether the IMF is truly universal or is likely to depend on metallicity, 
pressure, or temperature. As prestellar cores and young (Class 0) protostars 
emit the bulk of their luminosity at ~80-400 microns, the Herschel imaging 
instruments SPIRE and PACS are ideal for taking a census of such objects down
to ~0.01-0.1 Msun in the nearby (0.5 kpc) molecular cloud complexes. We 
propose an extensive imaging survey of the densest portions of the Gould 
Belt with SPIRE at 250-500 and PACS at 110-170 microns down to a 5-sigma 
column sensitivity NH2~10^21 cm^-2 or Av~1. Our goal is to make a complete, 
homogeneous mapping of the Av>3 regions with SPIRE and of the Av>6 regions 
with PACS, and representative areas at Av~1-3 levels with both instruments. 
The survey sensitivity is well matched to the expected cirrus confusion limit,
 so we should detect structures throughout the maps. The target clouds span a 
range of physical conditions, from active, cluster-forming complexes to 
quiescent regions with lower star formation activity. We should detect 
hundreds Class 0 protostars and thousands prestellar condensations in the 
entire ~145 deg^2 SPIRE survey, i.e. ~10 times more cold objects than already 
identified from the ground. These numbers should allow us to derive an 
accurate prestellar core mass function. The temperature and density 
structures of the nearest ( 0.2 kpc) cores will be resolved, revealing the 
initial conditions for individual protostellar collapse. The large spatial 
dynamic range of the proposed survey will probe the link between diffuse 
cirrus-like structures and compact self-gravitating cores. Our main 
scientific goal is to elucidate the physical mechanisms for the formation 
of prestellar cores out of the diffuse medium, crucial for understanding the 
origin of stellar masses.

Proposal ID: KPGT_vossenko_1	
"The warm and dense ISM" 
Principal Investigator: 
Volker Ossenkopf (KOSMA, Universitaet zu Koeln)
We propose to perform FIR spectroscopy of the warm and dense ISM (WADI) 
using the unique observational opportunities of Herschel to improve our 
understanding of the physical and chemical processes controlling the 
interaction between stars and their environment. The program will focus on 
four core topics, energy balance of photon-dominated regions (PDRs), 
photo-induced chemistry, PDR dynamics and kinematics, shock structures. 
Both radiative (FUV) and dynamical (shocks) processes will be probed, as 
key factors in the evolution of the ISM. They regulate star formation and 
may even govern galaxy evolution on large scales. Most of the energy input 
in star-forming regions is released as FIR radiation, either as dust 
continuum or as gas cooling lines. The bright cooling lines from these 
regions are natural tracers of star formation activity throughout the 
history of the cosmos; detailed understanding of their origin thus provides 
the basis for proper interpretation of the observations both of the Milky 
Way, as well as of nearby and distant galaxies. Herschel's unprecedented 
spectral coverage at high spatial resolution combined with the spectral 
resolution of the HIFI instrument allows a detailed study of many key 
tracers of PDRs and shocks. This allows to deeply probe the interaction of 
stars with their surrounding through radiation (PDRs) and shocks (SNRs). 
Observing a proper selection of prototype sources and key lines, will give 
insight into the details of the physical and chemical processes controlling 
each of the four core topics above, and will thus allow to model the FIR 
emission of star forming regions. 



Proposal ID: KPGT_mgroen01_1	
"The circumstellar environment in post-main-sequence objects"
Principal Investigator: 
Martin Groenewegen (University of Leuven)
Mass loss is one of the most fundamental properties of post-main sequence 
evolution. The mass-loss process leads to the formation of circumstellar 
shells containing dust and molecules. Although the mass-loss phenomenon has
been studied since the 1960s, and important results have been obtained with 
the IRAS, ISO and Spitzer space missions, the details of the mass-loss 
process and the formation and evolution of the circumstellar shells are 
still not well understood. With its improved spatial resolution compared 
to ISO and Spitzer, better sensitivity, the extension to longer and 
unexplored wavelength regions, and medium resolution spectrometers, the 
combination of PACS and SPIRE observations will lead to a significant 
improvement in our understanding of the phenomena of mass loss and dust 
formation. The main aims of this programme are three-fold: (1) to study the 
time dependence of the mass loss process, via a search for shells and 
multiple shells around a wide range of evolved objects, in order to 
quantify the total amounts of mass lost at the various evolutionary stages 
of low to high-mass stars, (2) to study the dust and gas chemistry as a 
function of progenitor mass, and (3) to study the properties and asymmetries
of evolved star envelopes. To this end, a sample of 103 Asymptotic Giant 
Branch and Red Super Giants, post-AGB and Planetary Nebulae, Luminous Blue 
Variables and Wolf-Rayet stars, and 5 Supernovae remnants will be imaged 
with PACS at 70+170 micron, and a sub-set of 32 stars will be imaged at all 
3 wavelengths with SPIRE. In spectroscopy, a sample of 55 stars will be 
observed over the full wavelength range of PACS and, 23 stars will be 
observed with the SPIRE FTS. The sample of AGB stars has been selected to 
cover all chemical types (M-, S-, C-stars), variability types (irregular, 
semi-regular, Miras) and periods, and mass-loss rates. Stars have been 
selected to have high IRAS fluxes and low background levels. The 
spectroscopic targets are typically the brightest of the mapping targets.

Proposal ID: KPGT_vbujarra_1	
"HIFISTARS: The physical and chemical properties of circumstellar environments around evolved stars"
Principal Investigator: 
Valentin Bujarrabal (Observatorio Astronomico Nacional)
We propose to carry out a comprehensive study of circumstellar envelopes 
(CSEs) around evolved stars, as a HIFI GTKP. The main scientific aims are 
to gain deeper insight into the structure, thermodynamics, kinematics and 
chemistry of CSEs and into the mass-loss history of evolved stars, thereby 
advancing our understanding on the final stages of stellar evolution of the
majority of stars and their resultant impact on the interstellar medium and 
the cosmic cycle. We will use the unique capabilities of HIFI to probe the 
inner regions of CSEs, by means of spectrally-resolved observations of the 
principal cooling transitions: thermal transitions of H2O, and high-excitation
rotational transitions of CO and HCN. Such observations provide unique 
information about the shells where the gas temperatures are 100 - 2000 K 
and the material is being accelerated. We propose to observe a set of 38 
objects, chosen to sample the parameter space of relevance for evolved stars
and their circumstellar material. For every star, 3 lines of both 12CO and 
13CO will be observed to unravel the mass-loss history. To further unveil 
the inner structure in the CSEs, observations of different H2O lines are 
crucial, since H2O is a key molecule to understand the chemistry, the 
thermodynamics and the dynamics of the inner CSE. We propose to observe a 
carefully-selected list of H2O transitions covering different excitation 
degrees, including para- and ortho-H2O lines and a few isotopic lines. The 
high spectral resolution observations will allow us to determine the velocity 
field in the warm acceleration regions. With HCN being a major coolant in 
C-rich CSEs, 2 high-excitation lines will be observed in C-rich AGBs to probe
the temperature structure. To further study the oxygen chemistry, we will
obtain OH and [OI] lines from PACS GT data. Finally, we will address the 
puzzling question of the origin of water vapor observed previously in the 
extreme carbon star IRC+10216, and survey 9 additional C-rich stars for 
evidence of water. 



Proposal ID: KPGT_cwilso01_1	
"Physical Processes in the Interstellar Medium of Very Nearby Galaxies"
Principal Investigator: 
Christine Wilson (McMaster University)
We propose to use the SPIRE and PACS instruments on Herschel to measure the 
emission spectrum from dust as well as important cooling lines from the 
gaseous interstellar medium in sample of 13 very nearby galaxies (M51, M81, 
NGC2403, NGC891, M83, M82, Arp220, NGC4038/39, NGC1068, NGC4151, CenA, 
NGC4125, and NGC205). These galaxies have been chosen to probe as wide a 
region in galaxy parameter space as possible while maximizing the achievable
spatial resolution and are already well-studied from X-ray and optical 
through to radio wavelengths. The far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths 
probed by Herschel are absolutely crucial for understanding the physical 
processes and properties of the interstellar medium,the interplay between 
star formation and the interstellar medium in galaxies, and how they may 
depend on the wider galaxian environment.

Proposal ID: KPGT_smadde01_1
"The ISM in Low Metallicity Environments: Bridging the Gap Between 
Local Universe and Primordial Galaxies"
Principal Investigator: 
Suzanne Madden (CEA Saclay
While much of what we have gleaned of the details of dust and gas properties 
and the processes of dust recycling and heating and cooling in galaxies has 
been limited to Galactic studies, with Herschel we will be able to explore 
these issues in low metallicity dwarf galaxies which are known by now to 
exhibit dust and gas properties different from more metal-rich galaxies. 
Because these objects are relatively nearby, it is possible to relate the 
observed variations in the SEDs to the actual physical phenomena occuring 
within the ISM of the galaxy, allowing the construction of a rich 
interpretative framework for unresolved, more distant galaxies in the early 
universe. Using the SPIRE and PACS instruments on Herschel, we propose to map 
the dust and gas in a 51 dwarf galaxies, sampling a broad metallicity range 
of 1/50 to 1/3 solar. These data, in conjunction with other ancillary data, 
will be used to construct the emission spectrum of the dust plus that of the 
gas in the most important cooling lines. The combination of these instruments
onboard Herschel will provide the first opportunity to study the dust and gas 
in extremely low metallicity environments that have not yet experienced 
repeated recycling through the ISM. The interpretation of this data will 
open the door to comprehending primordial ISM conditions and star formation 
in the young universe. 

Proposal ID: KPGT_rguesten_1
"The HEXGAL (Herschel EXtraGALactic) Key Project: Physical and Chemical 
Conditions of the ISM in Galactic Nuclei"
Principal Investigator: Rolf Güsten (Max Planck Institut fuer Radioastronomie)
Herschel/HIFI?s unique spectroscopic capabilities will allow us to make a 
representative velocity-resolved inventory of important cooling lines in 
nearby galaxies, AGN and starburst nuclei. Such observations explore the 
physical conditions within regions of active star formation in low and high 
metallicity environments, shedding light on the physics of large scale star 
formation in the contemporary and, by extension, the early universe. 
Multi-line data combined with numerical radiative transfer and chemical 
network models quantitatively constrain the various phases of the 
interstellar medium (ISM). Key lines in Herschel/HIFI?s spectral range 
include the bright fine-structure lines of neutral and ionized atomic carbon,
nitrogen and oxygen, a unique set of water lines, and the high-excitation CO 
transitions. The far-infrared spectra of many galaxies reflect the gas energy 
balance through atomic and molecular cooling lines from photo-dissociation 
regions (PDRs) and forbidden fine-structure lines from HII-regions. Within 
the beam of an extragalactic observation, any of the ISM components (dense 
warm PDRs on the surfaces of UV-exposed molecular clouds, low-density warm 
atomic clouds will contribute to the brightness of the molecular or 
fine-structure lines. Our high spectral resolution studies will unravel the 
structure of the ISM by analysis of their main cooling lines. Velocity 
information provides sub-beam spatial resolution and ties HIFI observations 
of different species to complementary PACS line integrated intensity maps on 
larger scales. In addition, water is a key molecule for our understanding of 
the chemistry and energy balance in the denser ISM. Herschel/HIFI will 
measure the brightness of the ground-state transitions to determine the gas 
temperature of the ISM via line ratios.

Proposal ID: KPGT_esturm_1
"Star formation and activity in infrared bright galaxies at 0<z<1"
Principal Investigator: 
Eckhard Sturm (Max Planck Institut fuer E. Physik)
We will perform a comprehensive far-infrared spectroscopic and photometric 
survey of infrared bright galaxies at local and intermediate redshifts. Our 
goal is to use the superior sensitivity, spatial and spectral resolution of 
Herschel to study these galaxies with minimal extinction effects. We aim to 
obtain a comprehensive view of the physical processes at work in the 
interstellar medium of local galaxies ranging from objects with moderately 
enhanced star formation to the most dense, energetic, and obscured 
environments in ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and around AGN. 
The objects cover a wide parameter range in luminosity, activity level, and 
metal enrichment, and will be complemented by a few objects at intermediate 
redshifts, i.e. at a more active epoch of star formation. In particular we 
plan to - study the obscuration and physical conditions of the central 
regions of infrared galaxies by obtaining full PACS and SPIRE spectra of 
five template starbursts, AGN and ULIRGs. - characterise for a larger local 
sample the state of the ionised medium and of photo-dissociation and X-ray 
dominated regions through PACS observations of key diagnostic fine-structure 
and molecular lines. The densest and warmest region near AGN will also be 
probed for highly excited CO emission, - determine the role of metallicity 
in star formation processes of low metallicity galaxies from the nearby 
LMC/SMC to more distant galaxies, - search for evolution from the 
intermediate redshift population close to the peak of cosmic star formation 
till the present time, - study the triggering mechanisms and temporal 
evolution of infrared activity by photometric mapping of a large sample of 
interacting galaxies, - determine the structure of a few local templates by 
spectroscopic mapping along characteristic axes. These PACS line maps will 
establish the physical conditions of nuclear region, spiral arms/disk, and 
wind regions. 

Proposal ID: KPGT_seales01_1	
"The Herschel Reference Survey"
Principal Investigator: 
Stephen Eales (Cardiff University)
Despite IRAS, ISO and Spitzer, there is still much we do know about dust in 
galaxies, partly because of sensitivity limitations and partly because 
previous telescopes were insensitive to dust colder than about 15 K. Our 
knowledge is especially poor for ellipticals which have barely been detected 
by previous telescopes. As part of the SPIRE GT programme, we propose to 
obtain images at 250, 350 and 520 microns of a sample of 323 galaxies 
selected to be useful both for studying the dust in individual galaxies and 
for drawing statistical conclusions about the role of dust in galaxies in 
general. The Herschel Reference Survey will be the first survey sensitive 
to all the dust in galaxies and which will detect dust in galaxies of all 
Hubble types. Apart from its legacy value, we intend to use the survey for 
the following projects: 
 1) We will make a comprehensive study of dust along the Hubble sequence, 
investigating how the dust mass varies with Hubble type: mass of stars, 
current star formation rate, past star formation rate, and the masses of 
molecular and atomic gas. 
 2) We will investigate within individual galaxies the connections between 
the star formation rate and the different phases of the ISM, from the nucleus 
to the HI outside the optical disk. 3) We will investigate how the mass and 
distribution of dust depend on a galaxy's environment. 4) We will investigate 
whether there is an intergalactic dust cycle by looking for dusty halos, 
dusty superwinds and tidally-stripped dust around galaxies. 5) We will 
investigate the origin of dust in ellipticals, and the evolution of the 
galaxies themselves, by looking for dust disks and dust shells and by 
looking for correlations between the mass and distribution of the dust and 
the other properties of the galaxy. 6) We will measure the local luminosity 
and dust-mass functions, which will be necessary to interpret the results 
of the deep surveys, another part of the proposed GT programme. The total 
time required for the survey is 112.6 hours.



Proposal ID: KPGT_soliver_1	
"The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES): 
Measuring the Infrared Galaxy Formation History of the Universe"
Principal Investigator: Seb Oliver (University of Sussex)
A central challenge in astrophysics today is to understand the complex 
processes of galaxy formation: the development of galactic structure, the 
conversion of gas into stars, and the growth of supermassive black holes. 
The far-infrared / submillimetre waveband is of particular importance for 
studying these processes because roughly half of the cosmic energy density 
produced by galaxies arises from optical/UV starlight that has been absorbed 
by dust and reradiated at these wavelengths. Existing surveys are already 
presenting a serious challenge for theorists, revealing many more luminous, 
massive galaxies at high redshifts than are predicted by simple prescriptions 
within the hierarchical merging paradigm. Submillimetre surveys however have 
been extremely limited but have already provided tantalizing clues to a 
strongly evolving population of infrared-luminous galaxies. We propose 
HerMES, the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, to chart the 
formation and evolution of infrared galaxies throughout cosmic history. 
HerMES consists of a nested set of fields that will bring unprecedented 
depth and breadth to the study of infrared galaxies. We will use HerMES 
to measure the bolometric emission of infrared galaxies, study the evolution 
of the luminosity function, measure their clustering properties, and probe 
populations of galaxies below the confusion limit through lensing and 
statistical techniques. HerMES is closely coordinated with the PACS 
Evolutionary Probe survey. We will make maximum use of ancillary surveys 
from radio to X-ray wavelengths to facilitate redshift determination, 
rapidly identify unusual objects, and understand the relationships between 
thermal dust emission and other emission mechanisms. HerMES will provide a 
rich data set legacy for the greater astronomical community to mine for 
years to come. 

Proposal ID: KPGT_kmeisenh_1
"The Dusty Young Universe: Photometry and Spectroscopy of Quasars at z>2"
Principal Investigator: 
Klaus Meisenheimer (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie)
The detection of a significant fraction of the highest redshift quasars 
(z > 5) in the (sub-)mm wavelength range indicates that a substantial 
amount of dust has been synthesized already during the first billion year 
since the Big Bang. Recent 24 micron observations with Spitzer have shown 
that very hot dust is present close to the QSO core in most z >5 quasars. 
However, both the (sub-)mm and MIR observations can only catch tails of the 
dust emission spectrum, at lambda_rest > 200 µm, and at lambda_rest 5 µm, 
respectively. Measuring the peak of the dust emission, expected to reach 
10 ... 30 mJy around lambda_rest ~ 50 µm (120µm lambda_obs 700µm), has been 
beyond the capabilities of FIR satellites or ground-based sub-mm telescopes.
Thus, critical properties, such as FIR luminosity, dust temperatures and 
mass, remain unconstrained. To improve on this situation, we propose a 
Herschel Guaranteed Time Key Programme (GT KP) to collect far-infrared and 
sub-millimeter photometry of more than 100 high redshift quasars using the 
PACS and SPIRE instruments. We plan to determine the SEDs of three samples 
of QSOs: (i) all z > 5 quasars known to date, (ii) a dozen radio loud quasars 
and galaxies at the highest redshifts, and (iii) 29 Broad Absorption Line 
(BAL) quasars together with a comparison sample of 17 non-BAL QSOs at 
matching redshifts. In addition, we plan to obtain PACS spectroscopy of 
four very dust-rich and lensed high-redshift QSOs and galaxies for spectral 
line diagnostics, which will help to disentangle the contributions of AGN- 
and starburst-heated dust and thus complement the SED-based study. We will 
spend in total 165 hours of PACS GT in this key programme, 115 hours for the 
photometry with PACS and SPIRE, and 50 hours for the FIR spectroscopy. )

Proposal ID: KPGT_dlutz_1
"PACS Evolutionary Probe - A guaranteed time key programme survey of the extragalactic sky"
Principal Investigator:
Dieter Lutz (Max Planck Institut fuer E. Physik)
We describe a key programme using the unprecedented sensitivity and spatial 
resolution of Herschel for a comprehensive far-infrared photometric survey 
of the extragalactic sky. Blank field surveys using PACS at 170, 110 and 
75 micron are supplemented with targeted observations of massive z~1 clusters 
and lensing clusters. We will resolve the bulk of the Cosmic Infrared 
Background, determine the nature of its constituent sources and trace the 
evolution of dust-obscured star formation. Our survey will study the 
evolution of galaxies and AGN over a wide range of redshifts and in 
environments of different density, and provide the crucial far-infrared 
measurements lacking for a full understanding of intermediate and high 
redshift galaxy populations previously identified at other wavelengths. We 
have chosen fields with excellent multi-wavelength coverage enabling both 
rapid science results and a lasting legacy value. This survey is coordinated 
with Herschel/SPIRE observations of the same fields in a Key programme 
submitted by the SPIRE SAG 1.