## Overview of GT1 proposals

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SCIENCE CATEGORY: Solar system (2)
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Proposal ID: GT1_lorourke_9
Title: "Herschel In-situ Asteroid & Comet Observation programme"
Principal Investigator:
Laurence O'Rourke
Time: 20.3 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:

In September 2010, 25 years will have passed since the first in-situ encounter
of a space probe with a comet. This first visit occurred in September 1985
when the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), passed through the tail of
P/Giacobini-Zinner. Up to that point, comet and asteroid scientific
observations were always based upon remote sensing be they performed from
ground or from space. The next opportunity for a comet encounter arose with
the return of Halley's Comet in 1986, whereby many satellites (Giotto, Vega
1 & 2, Suisei & Sakigake) were launched to perform in-situ observations. The
first asteroid flybys, Gaspra & Ida/Dactyl, occurred as part of Galileo's
journey to Jupiter. Since this time, NEAR, DS1, Hayabusa, Rosetta, Deep Impact,
Stardust-NExT and Dawn satellites have all been launched with the aim of
performing flybys, orbiting & sample return.

Remote sensing & in-situ measurements are considered highly complementary in
nature: remote sensing shows the global picture, but conversion of measured
fluxes in physical quantities frequently depends on poorly constrained model
parameters (e.g. dust size distribution or fluorescence efficiencies). In-situ
techniques measure physical quantities in a more direct way, but are limited
in spatial coverage. The benefit of both combined is that we can compare
surface composition, reflectance, albedos & temperatures of in-situ and
remote sensing and as a result greatly improve the scientific understanding
of the objects in question.

This proposal focuses on using the Herschel Space Observatory to remotely
observe a select set of in-situ comets/asteroids. The down-selection from 29
asteroids & comets to the final eight was made based upon many criteria, the
main one being prioritisation of the most important open scientific issues
existing for each of the targets for which the Herschel Space Observatory,
its sensitivity & wavelength coverage, could indeed contribute in a highly
significant and, in specific cases, conclusive way to their resolution.

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Proposal ID: GT1_mkidger_2
Title: "A last chance to measure the size of the nucleus of Comet Hale-Bopp
directly in the IR"
Principal Investigator:
Mark Kidger
Time: 10.7 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:

Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) was one of the three intrinsically brightest
comets of the last 600 years. It is generally agreed to be a giant object
with a nucleus of diameter in the range 40-80km compared to the 15x8km of
1P/Halley. It is also one of the most intensively studied objects in history
and the only giant comet ever to be studied intensively with modern detectors.
The large flux, long lead time to perihelion and exceptional period of
visibility (19 months with the naked eye and, so far, at least 17
years telescopically) have contributed to an unprecedented degree of
knowledge and understanding of this comet. The fact that the comet was
known to be active at 13AU pre-perihelion (and possibly even at 17AU) and
that it has been active a well past 20AU post-perihelion has demonstrated
its extraordinary duration of activity.

In June 2010 Hale-Bopp will pass the orbit of Neptune and now finally appears
to be inactive. This will allow us to attack the problem of the one great
unknown about the comet: the size of the nucleus. Dozens of size estimates
have been published, ranging from under 15km to 250km, but it is generally
acknowledged that radio techniques have underestimated the size, whereas
infrared techniques and PSF fitting have tended to overestimate it. Given
that the rotation period, rotation mode and pole orientation are
well-determined, an accurate value for the diameter of the nucleus will
allow dynamical information on the mass and even the internal structure of
the nucleus to be determined.

We propose to observe Hale-Bopp in PACS blue+red using the technique of
background subtraction to obtain 4-sigma at 1mJy, equivalent to detecting a
nucleus of diameter around 40km. We request that these observations be
scheduled in the optimum window in June 2010 to subtract out the confusion
noise. Combining PACS with visible data, we will obtain, at worst, a strong
model-constraining upper limit to the nucleus diameter and albedo that should
stand for 2500 years.

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SCIENCE CATEGORY: ISM/Star Formation (8)
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Proposal ID: GT1_aabergel_4
Title: "Probing CH and CH+ in the diffuse interstellar medium using concerted
SPIRE / HIFI observations"
Principal Investigator: Alain Abergel
Time: 2.0 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:

This proposal is presented by the SPIRE SAG4 consortium associated with
HIFI experts for a specific follow-up of two SPIRE FTS recently observed
sources map for the HII compact sources G29.96-0.02 and G32.80+0.19.

Naylor et al. (2010) report the detection of the fundamental rotational
transition of CH+, in absorption against the compact source continuum,
due to its presence in the the diffuse interstellar medium.
These detections are important to shed light on the formation processes
and on the occurence of CH+, which are still outstanding questions in
astrophysics.

For a better understanding of CH+ associated diffuse medium chemistry
and to effectively be able to spectrally resolve the components along the
line of sight, a follow-up with a good signal-to-noise (above 30) with HIFI
is mandatory. We need the HIFI capabilities to separate CH+ emission and
absorption, to derive the kinematics of the absorptions, to assign them to
individual interstellar components, and to extract relevant column
densities by properly taking into account saturation effects.

We wish to sample two galactic lines of sights using the two compact
sources as background, to complement SPIRE FTS observations already
performed. These two sources offer not only a scientific goal to follow CH
and CH+ in the diffuse medium but also a unique opportunity to cross
calibrate the SPIRE FTS and HIFI Herschel instruments with a moderate
amount of integration time. In this proposal, we ask for 2 hours of total
integration time.

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Proposal ID: GT1_abenz_1
Title: "Completing the OH ladder for HH46"
Principal Investigator: Arnold Benz
Time: 3.4 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:

First results from PACS observations towards the low-mass protostar HH 46 show
surprisingly bright OH lines. The hydroxyl radical OH plays important roles in
the water and oxygen chemistry of star-forming regions and their cooling.
Furthermore, the hydroxyl-to-water line ratios are interesting tracers for
We propose a nearly complete observation of the OH ladder in low-mass star
formation for the first time. Four OH transitions in the class I object HH 46
were detected by PACS. We propose complementary observations towards the
source in PACS line spectroscopy mode at  53, 56, 65, 71, 96, 115 and 135
micron. We gain insight in the origin and formation of OH from the PACS
spatial information. The completeness of the OH ladder allows a reliable
determination of the OH abundance and thus constrains water chemistry and
cooling contribution more precisely.
In addition, we propose HIFI observations of the OH transition at 163.4
micron to resolve the three hyperfine components for the first time.
This will allow to determine optical depths of OH and test the hypothesis of
asymmetries between the two closely spaced triplets, as the second triplet
will be observed within the HIFI priority science program.

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Proposal ID: GT1_azavagno_1
Title: "SPIRE-FTS observations of Young Stellar Objects revealed by SPIRE
and PACS images in star forming regions"
Principal Investigator: Annie Zavagno
Time: 8.7 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:

We propose to use the SPIRE-FTS to obtain the spectrum of a 14 young stellar
objects that have been observed with PACS and SPIRE in imaging. These YSOs
are highly embedded sources  that have not been observed before at wavelengths
shorter than 100 micron.
We propose to use the FTS to ascertain their physical properties (mass and
age) using chemical tracers such as the ones that trace outflows and shocks.
These YSOs span a large range of luminosity, evolutionary stage and mass. The
obtained FTS spectra will constitute the first existing far IR spectral
database of YSOs.
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Proposal ID: GT1_cdedes_1
Title: "Heating and cooling mechanics in massive star formation"
Principal Investigator: Carolin Dedes
Time: 3.2 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:

Massive stars are important constituents of the interstellar medium (ISM) in
our Galaxy and beyond. Their strong feedback processes influence the dynamics,
energetics and chemistry of the surrounding interstellar medium both locally
and on large scales.
An important question to be answered is the one of cooling and heating
mechanisms in regions of massive star formation. In the vicinity of massive
stars, heating is provided mostly by far-UV (FUV) and infra-red radiation.
Cooling is mostly provided by emission in the fine structure lines of CII.
There are however other atomic and molecular lines such as OI, CO, OH and
H$_2$O which can become significant coolants in the dense, embedded regions
of massive star formation.
This early phase when the forming massive star is still deeply embedded in
its natal envelope, yet already interacting with, and potentially destroying,
its environment through copious amounts of UV radiation, massive outflows and
ultra compact HII (UCHII) regions, is an important phase in the star formation
process. To understand the heating and cooling balance in this phase, one has
to consider the contributions of various radiative and dynamical processes
such as the FUV radiation from the young star itself, shocks created by strong
stellar winds and the photon dominated regions (PDRs) where the radiation
impinges on the molecular material.
The tracers of these processes can be observed in the far-infrared, a
wavelength range that is now accessible at unprecedented high spectral and
spatial resolution with the Herschel Space Observatory.
We propose to observe the aformentioned tracers of cooling and heating in the
massive star forming region IRAS 12326-6245 to obtain a complete picture of
the different processes, the regions they originate from and how they interact.

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Proposal ID: GT1_epoleham_1
Title: "SPECHIS: SPIRE Spectral Line Surveys of HIFI-GT-KP Sources"
Principal Investigator: Edward Polehampton
Time: 7.0 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
We propose to obtain several SPIRE submm line surveys of the most significant
star forming regions at the highest spectral resolution allowed by the
SPIRE-FTS.
A list of 27 sources currently being observed by us with HIFI and PACS in
five different Guaranteed Programs is proposed. As a result of these
complementary data, the most relevant sources in the galactic center (Sgr B2,
Sgr A...) and galaxy disc (Orion, W49N...) would be observed with the 3
spectrometers on board Herschel, and analyzed and interpreted by the same
teams. A unique spectral data set of these sources will thus be available
for the general community with a great lasting value.

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Proposal ID: GT1_golofs01_4
Title: "SPIRE spectroscopy of protoplanetary disks"
Principal Investigator: Goran Olofsson
Time: 14.9 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
We propose spectroscopy of Herbig Ae/Be and T Tauri stars using the
SPIRE FTS. This instrument covers a broad spectral range, 200 - 650 µm,
which is basically unexplored with the exception of two atmospheric
windows at 350 and 450 µm. The FTS is well suited for both the definition
of broad features as well as the detection of emission lines. Our source
list is co-ordinated with the OT Key program DIGIT (PI: N. Evans) together
providing spectra in the range 50-650 microns. It includes 10 Herbig
Ae/Be stars and three T Tauri stars. The ages of the stars range from
1 Myr to 10 Myr, the mass range is 1-5 Msun and the temperature range
is 4300-10000 K. The flux density of the continuum varies from a few
Janskys to tenths of Janskys between the sources and in general the
brightness for a given source decreases rapidly from the short wave-
length to the long wavelength end. As our main purpose is detecting
emission lines and as these are known (from other spectral regions) to
correlate poorly with the dust emission (but rather with other properties
as disk flaring and accretion rate) we propose a standard observation
time of one hour per source, except for the fainter T Tauri stars which
are observed a bit longer. We expect to detect lines from CO,13CO, H2O,
CI and possibly SiO, HDO and NH3. The relative brightness distribution
for the carbon monoxide lines and in particular the 13CO/12CO ratios
for the J=4-3 to J=13-12 transitions, covered by the FTS, will provide
powerful constraints on the density and temperature structure of the
disk. Water vapour lines will provide further constraints on the density
and radiation field in the regions inside the "snow line"
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Proposal ID: GT1_rvavrek_1
Title: "Anatomy of Class 0 Protostellar Envelopes in their far-IR Spectrum"
Principal Investigator: Roland Vavrek
Time: 28.0 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
During the Science Demonstration Phase, Herschel's instrumentation has
proven its outstanding capabilities to provide an unprecedented view of
far-infrered spectra at the 50-670 microns regime. We propose a program to
obtain spectra with the PACS Intergral Field- and SPIRE FTS Spectrometers of
luminous and nearby (d<400 pc) low-mass protostellar envelopes previously
categorized as Class 0 sources. Our sample includes well studied sources
which can be considered as templates of this early evolutionary stage of
protostars. This selection of densely clustered, double and relatively well
separated individual protostars consists the largest Herschel sample for
which spectra will be taken in entire wavelength range. PACS detections of
water, OH and [OI] lines will be used to determine the fundamental properties
(such as density, temperature, infall rate, and molecular abundance and
accretion rate) of the interacting components of a protostellar system: the
infalling envelopes, disks and outflows. SPIRE data is expected to reveal
lower state water lines and help to derive the gas temperature and density
via the CO intermediate-level rotational lines. We aim to provide a valuable
spectral reference database for better understanding and testing the theory
of the earliest phases of star formation and we can examine the role of
interaction between protostars in dense groups and multiple systems.

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Proposal ID: GT1_mpestalo_4
Title: "Tracing the evolution of interstellar medium from molecular clouds to stars"
Principal Investigator: Michele Pestalozzi
Time: 14.0 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
The aim of the present proposal is to detect and understand how the
interstellar medium (ISM) changes due to star formation. To do this we intend
to perform a (large scale) spectral survey using the SPIRE spectrometer. The
main idea is to scan with the SPIRE FTS along gradients of increasing
temperature, density and star formation activity, e.g. from the edge of a
star forming region to its centre. Making sure to include regions of different
levels of star formation activity and clump/core density, we aim to probe the
ISM in its different phases and see what are the relevant changes in its
physical properties. Starting from the assumption that all stars in a star
formation region are formed from the same material but not at the same time,
we wish to probe the physical conditions of the ISM from a low-activity
region to a region where stars are already formed. In this way we will be
able to directly relate the changes in the ISM to star formation activity.

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SCIENCE CATEGORY: Stars (10))
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Proposal ID: GT1_pharve01_2
Title: "Structure and Evolution of Disks around Brown Dwarfs and Very Low Mass Stars"
Principal Investigator: Paul Harvey
Time: 46.0 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
We propose a program of deep PACS photometry of 50 young brown dwarfs and
YSOs at the hydrogen-burning limit, 0.08 solar masses.  We have selected
these from documented BDs in the literature that have been observed to have
circumstellar disks based on their 1-24um SEDs. None of these objects is
bright enough to have been detectable with Spitzer beyond 24um.
We eliminated objects from our list that are likely to be detected in the
large-area Herschel Key Project surveys of star-forming regions, and we also
eliminated objects whose disks are likely to be below our detection limit of
a few mJy at 70um.  We expect to be able to detect or obtain important upper
limits on the cold disk emission at 70um for all 50 sources, and to obtain
useful detections or limits at 160um for at least a third of our objects.
We will combine our results with those from Spitzer and ground-based telescopes
and then model the SEDs with two different radiative transfer codes existing
at the University of Kiel and University of Grenoble. These results will
provide the first quantitative assessment of the structure and mass of cold
dust around the lowest mass objects that form like stars. Our data and
modeling will provide important new constraints to the understanding
of disk evolution and planet formation by extending the range of central
object masses to ~ 0.01 solar masses.

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Proposal ID: GT1_bdevries_1
Title: "Mapping the distribution of the crystalline silicate forsterite
in the Cat's Eye Nebula (NGC 6543)"
Principal Investigator: Ben de Vries
Time: 3.9 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:

We propose to observe a 5x5 oversampled map wavelength centered on
the 69micron band of crystalline silicate forsterite for the Planetary
Nebula NGC6543. This will be the first time that we can resolve the
location of crystalline dust in a mass-loss outflow. This will help is
investigate the dust-formation in the circumstellar environment of
an evolved star and look at the link with mass-loss and possibly  binarity.
The total observing time is 3.87h
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Proposal ID: GT1_bdevries_2
Title: "The rich mineralogy of the post-Asymptotic Giant Branch star MWC922"
Principal Investigator: Ben de Vries
Time: 1.0 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
We propose to observe a full SED of the post Asymptotic Giant Branch
star (post-AGB) MWC922. ISO spectra have already shown that this
object has a very rich mineralogy. With a full spectral scan we want to
get a complete inventory of the solid state bands in this object. MWC922
is one of the few sources that shows a narrow band at 65 micron that
can be assigned to enstatite, and as such could serve as an important
template to establish the signature of cold enstatite in circumstellar
environments. MWC922 also shows a broad band centered around
65 micron, whose nature is under discussion but could be diopside.
This could offer the rare occasion where cold diopside could be
studied. Solid state bands in the spectrum will be identified using
laboratory data available in the literature and we will establish relative
abundances of the materials. Furthermore, the presence of the narrow
65 micron enstatite band can be verified and we can search for other
enstatite bands in the 65-75 micron wavelength range (clino and
ortho enstatite).

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Proposal ID: GT1_dteyssie_1
Title: "SUCCESS: A SUbmm Catalogue of Circumstellar Envelopes of StarS with Herschel/HIFI"
Principal Investigator: David Teyssier
Time: 35.0 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
We propose to perform a biased survey of Circumstellar Envelopes (CSE) in
AGB and post-AGB stars in order to build a reference catalogue in two
to three sub-millimetre and FIR CO transitions. The proposed
layers in the temperature range ~100 to 2000K. These warm layers are
fundamental to the field of stellar evolution because they are the
regions where the acceleration of the gas takes place, and therefore
where the envelopes are being formed. Because of the significant
atmospheric opacity affecting ground-based observations at the
corresponding wavelengths, this warm gas could never be probed in a
systematic manner over large source samples. In fact, in some of the
transitions emitting in this temperature regime, no observation at all
is possible from the ground.

The catalogue we are proposing to build will collect the emission of
two CO transitions (J=5-4 and J=9-8) probing different layers of the
warm gas in about 74 sources, and measure a high-J CO transition
(J=14-13) in the 10 most intense sources of the sample. The total time
to build this data-set is 35 hours. When eventually combined
to the smaller sample collected by the GTKP HIFISTARS, this will form
an unprecedented catalogue of over 100 AGB and post-AGB stars in two to
three fundamental CO lines of the sub-millimetre and FIR domain, and
offer a legacy data-base for the modelling of the shaping parameters of
evolved stars.

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Proposal ID: GT1_jblommae_1
Title: "Forsterite dust in the circumstellar environment of evolved stars"
Principal Investigator: Joris Blommaert
Time: 10.6 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
PACS range spectroscopy will be performed around the 69 micron
forsterite dust feature of evolved stars. With the spectral resolution
and sensitivity of PACS we
will be able to fit the profile of the forsterite feature which is very
sensitive to temperature. By studying the forsterite feature in a
wide range of evolved stars and from different populations (including
Galactic Bulge and LMC) we want to determine the role of
forsterite in the dust formation in the circumstellar environments.
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Proposal ID: GT1_jcernich_4
Title: "A Molecular Line Survey of IRC+10216"
Principal Investigator: Jose Cernicharo
Time: 45.0 hours allocated
Category: GT1
Summary:
We would like to perform a systematic line survey of the prototype carbon-rich
AGB star IRC+10216. This object is particularly rich in carbon chain molecules and radicals
and shows an impressive HCN spectrum in the submillimeter and far-infrared
domains. The coverage of the HIFI instrument will permit to characterize the complete
molecular content of the innermost zones of the envelope and complement the low
frequency observations available from ground-based radio observatories. The
sensitivity of the survey is such that at 1 THz we approach the detection limit of
a ground based telescope such as the 30m IRAM radiotelescope after several hours
of observing time. The 1500 GHz we want to cover requires 45 hours of GT observing
time. A line survey covering 100 GHz with the 30m IRAM radiotelescope at an equivalent
sensitivity requires several weeks of observing time.
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Proposal ID: GT1_magundez_1
Title: "A sensitive search for light hydrides towards IRC+10216"
Principal Investigator: Marcelino Agundez
Time: 15.0 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
Among the molecular species typically observed in the
interstellar and circumstellar medium, light hydrides
have been traditionally elusive to detection since their
rotational spectrum lies in the submillimeter and
infra-red ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, which
is very difficult to observe from ground due to severe
atmospheric absorption. This project aims at utilizing
the remarkable capabilities of the HIFI instrument on
board the Herschel Space Observatory to perform a
sensitive search for several light hydrides toward the
circumstellar envelope of the carbon-rich evolved star
IRC +10216, which is one of the richest molecular
sources in the sky, with more than 70 molecules observed
to date.
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Proposal ID: GT1_proyer_1
Title: "Unveiling the evolutionary paths of the most massive stars"
Principal Investigator: Pierre Royer
Time: 2.1 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
Several important questions remain open regarding the latest stages
of evolution of the most massive stars, in particular regarding the
exact evolutionary paths taken between the various subtypes of O
stars, LBVs and Wolf-Rayet stars, and the mass-loss history of
these objects throughout their lives. In this proposal we will
address these questions by extending  the massive stars
programme of the the MESS GTKP. In the MESS programme, we
focus on the LBV phenomenon. Here we will focus on the
properties of nebular ejecta from a peculiar O-type star and
a Wolf-Rayet star. These together will allow us to study the
relationship between these three types of related,
massive, mass-losing stars, in particular to better understand
how the mass loss both changes with evolutionary stage and
how it may dictate the evolutionary paths taken.

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Proposal ID: GT1_kexter_1
Title: "V838 Mon: aftermath of a stellar merger"
Principal Investigator: Katrina Exter
Time: 7.3 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
V838 Mon is one of the most enigmatic objects observed in stellar
astrophysics in recent decades. It came to attention when it underwent
a powerful eruptive outburst in Jan. 2002, increasing in luminosity by a
factor of 100 over a period of 3 months. Immediately following this event
a spectacular light echo was formed from the outburst light reflecting off
the surrounding dust.  Hubble Space Telescope images following this
expanding light echo have brought V838 Mon to public attention. What
makes V838 Mon an unusual star is that the outburst is not of any type
heretofore seen; the scenarios of a nova-like event or thermonuclear
runaway have been discounted, on the basis of the stellar type and
outburst details. The theories that best explain the outburst are a giant
star engulfing a planetary system or, more likely, a merger between a
very low mass star and a very young, maybe pre-main sequence
low-intermediate mass  star.
Observations show that the envelope of the star expanded in response
to the stellar impact, and than it may now be beginning to contract. Many
O-bearing molecules, dust, an SiO maser and possibly a jet have been
observed from the star. If the outburst was indeed caused by the merging
of two stars, this is an extremely rare event. Herschel observations of
this star will allow us to model the kinematics, chemistry, temperature
and density structure of the stellar photosphere and the cool envelope
surrounding the star. These will help answer questions still remaining
about the stellar impact, and will also allow us to understand more about
how a star responds to such a violent event.

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Proposal ID: GT1_vgeers_1
Title: "Tracing Remnant Gas in Planet Forming Debris Disk Systems"
Principal Investigator: Vincent Geers
Time: 2.5 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
Recent studies of gas emission lines with Spitzer and sub-millimeter telescopes
have shown that 10-100 Myr old stars with debris disks have too little gas left
to form Jupiter like gas giant planets. Whether enough gas remains in these
systems to form ice giant planets is still unanswered. The [OI] emission line
at 63 micron is one of the most sensitive tracers of gas mass in the ice-giant
region of 10-50 AU in disks, and Herschel PACS is therefore uniquely suited to
trace the remnant gas in planet-forming disks.
We propose to obtain PACS line spectroscopy of [OI] (63 micron) for two nearby
young stars, HR 8799 and HD 15115, which are two systems with detected giant
planets or signs of planet formation, while still harbouring prominent debris
disks that could be in the process of forming ice giants such as Neptune and
Uranus. The proposed observations will probe down to gas masses of 0.01 Earth
masses, and allow us to constrain prospects for ice giant formation, measure
gas-to-dust ratios in evolved disks to compare with planet formation / disk
evolution models, and put constraints on whether the dust dynamics in these
systems is driven by the remnant gas or by the radiation.

Note: this proposal is submitted under the Swiss part of the HIFI Guaranteed
Time program; HIFI PI: Frank Helmich, HIFI Swiss Lead CoI: Arnold Benz.

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SCIENCE CATEGORY: Galaxies/AGNs (8)
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Proposal ID: GT1_jfritz_1
Title: "Herschel Exploitation of Local Galaxy Andromeda"
Principal Investigator: Jacopo Fritz
Time: 18.2 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:

We propose to observe Andromeda on a 5.5x2.5 degree field,
an area which will be ~4.5 larger with respect to any previous
IR observations, with SPIRE and PACS fast scan Parallel Mode, thus
obtaining the most complete FIR survey of this galaxy both in terms
of spatial mapping and spectral coverage.
Sampling the whole galaxy will allow us to get a complete statistical
sample of the cloud masses, temperatures, luminosities, as well as
sampling the total dust in M31 right out to the most cool extended
regions, and the total energy balance.
Our observation strategy, covering such a large field, will enable us to
trace the presence of both warm and cold dust much further away than
was ever done before.
Exploiting ancillary data at both millimeter
and radio wavelengths, particularly of the HI emission, it will be
possible to have a complete map describing the coupling of dust -at all
temperatures- and gas down to Andromeda's outskirts in both the
diffuse medium and in the outer parts of its spiral structures.
We will study the characteristics of the radiation field, derive gas-to-dust
ratios as a function of the distance from the galaxy's bulge, study
the mechanisms that are responsible for the dust ejection and detect, for
the first time, cold dust in the galaxy's outskirts.
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Proposal ID: GT1_okrause_4
Title: "Peering into the dust: the Far-IR Emission in M31 at GMC-Resolution"
Principal Investigator: Oliver Krause
Time: 24.4 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
We propose to image M31 (3x1deg) with PACS and SPIRE in slow parallel mode
to understand the dust heating processes and efficiencies in normal spiral
galaxies. Our observations will provide a unique deep and panchromatic
70,100,160, 250, 350 and 500 micron view of the inner stellar disk of M31
at the highest possible spatial resolution with Herschel. Combined with
Spitzer 8 and 24 micron data, this imaging will provide a detailed map of
the thermal-IR SED at a resolution unparalleled for any other large galaxy.
The 6-18 arcsec spatial resolution of Herschel at 70-250 micron corresponds
to 20-60 pc at the distance of M31 and matches the scales of molecular
clouds complexes (GMCs; ~ 40 pc) as well as of HII regions and clusters thereof
(about 10-50 pc). Existing GALEX and optical data, as well as upcoming 900
orbit HST imaging will provide us with an unprecedented, resolved picture of
all stellar populations younger than ~200 Myrs, which should encompass much
of the relevant dust heating sources at scales of a few to a few 10 parsecs.

With such information on both the thermal state of the dust and on the
heating sources in hand, our SED modelling can then be used to understand
over what length scales and with what efficiency stars heat the dust. The
results will also serve as a local high resolution calibration of Herschel
data on more distant galaxies such as from the KINGFISH OT key project.
This proposal is part of a coordinated effort to image M31 and its
surroundings: Here we aim on sensitive 70-250 micron coverage at the
highest spatial resolution for the bright inner stellar disk while the
diffuse outer cold dust envelope including the companion NGC205 are the
target of a second proposal by Fritz et al. For the analysis of extended
very cold dust emission, the SPIRE data will be provided collaboratively
to the other team.

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Proposal ID: GT1_mbaes_1
Title: "HERschel Observations of Edge-on Spirals (HEROES)"
Principal Investigator: Maarten Baes
TIME: 6.0 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
We propose to use PACS and SPIRE to map the dust distribution in a sample
of seven large edge-on spiral galaxies with regular dust lanes. We will look
for the presence of cold dust at large galactocentric radii and investigate
the link between dust, gas and metallicity as a function of radius.
We will also constrain the vertical distribution of the dust and particularly
look for dust emission at large heights above the plane of the galaxies.
We will compare the observed Herschel maps with simulated maps resulting from
detailed radiative transfer models based on optical and near-infrared images.
This will enable us to investigate whether we can confirm the existence of
a dust energy balance problem suggested by previous observations (the dust
seen in absorption in optical maps underestimates the dust seen in emission)
and investigate possible ways to alleviate this potential problem.
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Proposal ID: GT1_aconturs_1
Title: "[CII], [OI] and far infrared continuum emission properties of local
Lyman Break Analogs"
Principal Investigator: Alessandra Contursi
Time: 24.8 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
[CII] , [OI] and far infrared continuum emission properties of local Lyman
Break Analogs

We propose to observe 9 Ultra Compact UV-luminous galaxies,
selected from Overzier et al (2009) with the PACS spectrometer
in the [CII] and [OI] lines at 158 micron and 63 micron, and with
the PACS photometer in the green and red filters.
These galaxies are at redshifts ~0.2-0.3, they are rare in the
nearby Universe and they were chosen because  they are analogs of the
Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs), (Heckman et al 2005).  For this
reason, they have been called: "Local Break Analogs" (LBAs).
LBAs and LBGs share many  global properties such as, stellar mass,
metallicity, dust extinction, star sormation rate (SFR), physical size
and gas velocity dispersion.
Despite they have been observed with SPITZER at 24 and
70 micron, no systematic and detailed studies of their infrared
properties has been done so far.
We want to characterize the far infrared (FIR) properties of these galaxies.
The  porposed [CII] and [OI] observations together with ancillary CO data will
allow us to study the physics of the ISM and  its interplay with the
heating sources. Given the similarity between LBAs and LBGs, these
results will shed light also for the LBGs population, helping their
further characterization.
We will also verify if LBAs, and by analogy also  LBGs, are [CII]
deficient or not. In the case  LBAs are not [CII] deficient, we will
empirically calibrate the [CII] emission as a SFR indicator.
The SFR will be calculated from the FIR emission measured with PACS,
assuming that in such UV bright sources most of the FIR is
produced by young stars. Thus, this data set will  provide  an
unique local reference  sample  for the future infared
observations of high redshift UV-bright galaxies with ALMA.

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Proposal ID: GT1_lspinogl_2
Title: "Bright Seyfert Nuclei: FTS spectroscopy"
Principal Investigator: Luigi Spinoglio
Time: 17.8 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
This proposal is to measure the full 200-670um FTS spectra at high
resolution (~500 km/s) of 10 bright Seyfert nuclei. We are aiming to
detect the high-J CO lines, the [CI] and [NII] fine structure lines and
any other possible emission or absorption from H2O or other molecules.
The selected targets include four AGN1's (two Seyfert 1's and two
HBLR-Seyfert 2's), three AGN2's and three lower nuclear activity objects.
These objects have been chosen because they are the brightest at 60-100
um and their IR luminosity has been separated between AGN and Starburst
components through mid-IR spectroscopy. This program is fully
complementary to the Hercules OTKP, which is focused on SPIRE FTS
spectroscopy of the ULIRG/LIRG population, while the present proposal targets
optically bright nuclei, at a presumably later evolutionary stage.
We expect that the detection of the CO ladder in Seyfert nuclei will allow
us to measure the effects of the AGN on the circum-nuclear ISM of the galaxy
through detection of X-ray dominated regions. Moreover the molecular
spectroscopy could reveal the presence of the predicted molecular tori.
The 10 galaxies for which we request SPIRE FTS observations of their nuclei
in one single position can be observed in a total integration time of 14.7
hours. To complement the spectroscopic observations, photometric imaging with
SPIRE and PACS is also requested with a total time needed of 0.7 and 2.4
hours, respectively.
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Proposal ID: GT1_lspinogl_4
Title: "Bright Seyfert Nuclei: PACS spectroscopy"
Principal Investigator: Luigi Spinoglio
Time: 14.0 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
This proposal is to obtain PACS spectroscopy of 10 bright Seyfert nuclei
to observe the 6 ionic fine-structure lines, four high-J CO lines and three
OH doublets. The selected targets include four AGN1's (two Seyfert 1's
and two HBLR-Seyfert 2's), three AGN2's and three lower activity objects.
These objects have been chosen because they are the brightest at
60-100 micron, their luminosity has been separated between AGN and
Starburst components through mid-IR spectroscopy.
The immediate goals are to obtain a large set of FIR tracers to be able to
classify and model the various levels of non-thermal and starburst
activity in local Seyferts, using both atomic (Herschel and Spitzer) and
molecular (Herschel and H2 from Spitzer) transitions. The mid-to far-IR
classification of activity in galaxies will be essential in the close future to
interpret the spectroscopic surveys at long wavelength that will be
performed by Herschel, ALMA and SPICA.
The range spectroscopy with PACS has been optimized to allow detection
of 4 CO lines, 3 OH doublets and 6 fine structure lines in a total time of
14.0 hours.

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Proposal ID: GT1_msanchez_2
Title: "Herschel imaging photometry of nearby Seyfert galaxies: testing the
coexistence of AGN and stardust activity and the nature of the dusty torus"
Principal Investigator: Miguel Sanchez Portal
Time: 15.1 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
We propose  to perform 6-band PACS & SPIRE imaging
photometry of a sample of nearby Seyfert 1.x and 2 galaxies
in order to characterise the physical nature of their infrared
emission by means of a multi-component SED fitting (AGN,
starburst and host galaxy), combining existing ground-
and space-based data from UV to MIR with Herschel
FIR observations.

Active galactic nucleus (AGN) and starburst activities, being
among the most energetic extragalactic processes, have been
studied separately until the past decade, when evidence that the
two phenomena are related and, most frequently, coexistent started
to accumulate. The FIR peak of cold dust emission constitute a powerful
tracer of star formation. However, the study of such an important
feature in the innermost regions of nearby AGN hosts has been,  until
the advent of Herschel, seriously limited by the low spatial resolution and
limited spectral coverage of the existing facilities. These new data, given
the unprecedented angular resolution and spectral coverage of the
Herschel Space Observatory  will overcome this limitation, allowing
us to probe the cold and very cold dust components across the galaxy
and even in the nuclear and circum-nuclear regions.
In addition, it will allow us to unveil the nature of the dusty torus (e.g.
clumpy vs. smooth, flared disc), breaking model degeneracies.

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Proposal ID: GT1_pbarthel_1
Title: "The Herschel Legacy of distant radio-loud AGN"
Principal Investigator: Peter Barthel
Time: 38.0 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
We propose Herschel observations of the virtually complete sample of
3CR radio-galaxies and quasars in the redshift range 1 < z < 2.5,
and a representative additional set of 4C objects extending to redshift z = 3,
in order to quantify the orientation-dependence of AGN radiation
(AGN unification), to investigate the interplay between accretion
onto the central black-hole and star-formation in the hosts, to understand
the evolution of the black-hole/stellar-bulge relation, and to make the first
accurate assay of the energetics of AGN at the epoch of their peak activity,
the quasar era. The low-frequency radio-selection provides us with very
powerful and massive active galaxies free from any orientation/obscuration
bias, a requirement for testing AGN unification. The properties of particularly
the high-z 3CR sources are well known throughout the electromagnetic spectrum,
except in the rest-frame mid- and far-IR, where they were hitherto outside
the reach of space missions. We propose PACS/SPIRE 70-500 micron photometry
of 71  3CR+4C sources in 5 bands, in order to measure their detailed spectral
energy distributions between available Spitzer and SCUBA/MAMBO data.
The rest-frame FIR emission serves as an isotropic calorimeter and the MIR/FIR
luminosity ratio is determined by the relative strength of the AGN and
star-forming contributions combined with dust obscuration. These observations
will return crucial new information on the energy processes in powerful AGN
and their hosts at the cosmic heyday, providing an essential anchor for
studies of galaxy and AGN evolution.

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SCIENCE CATEGORY: Cosmology (5)
===============================

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Proposal ID: GT1_baltieri_3
Title: "The star formation history of galaxy clusters"
Principal Investigator: Bruno Altieri
Time: 48.4 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
We propose to study the star formation history of galaxy
clusters in the -yet unexplored- redshift range of0.9-2.4,
at a time galaxy clusters were assembling galaxies
and local massive early-type galaxies were building up,
with deep PACS and SPIRE imaging on a sample of
8  high-redshift galaxy clusters and proto-clusters.

We will be in a position to confirm the increase
in the fraction of dusty star-forming cluster galaxies
found by Spitzer up to z=0.8 (the mid-IR Butcher-Oemler
effect) and extend it to z>1  for the first time, at wavelength
close to the peak of the spectral energy  distribution
of star-forming galaxies.
Our sample includes clusters at different mass/richness
This will allow to understand the role and importance of
environment and the physical processes by which galaxy
clusters are accreting new galaxy falling from the outskirts
with high star formation rates.

This program promises to shed some new light too on the
assembly of the oldest galaxies at z=0 by combining the
clean and robust Herschel-derived SFRs (no assumptions
of SEDs) and a sample of clusters that covers a broad range
in mass, age and dynamical state at previously unexplored
redshifts for these wavelengths.
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Proposal ID: GT1_dlutz_4
Title: "SEDs and energetics of lensed UV-bright high redshift galaxies"
Principal Investigator: Dieter Lutz
Time: 41.0 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
Optically selected rest-frame UV-bright galaxies are a key component
of the z~1.5-3 high redshift galaxy population. No understanding of
the evolution of cosmic star formation or mass assembly can be obtained
without them. Initial Herschel results find a discrepancy between their
total infrared luminosity as estimated by extrapolation from the mid-IR
and the directly measured rest-frame far-infrared, suggesting changed
SEDs compared to local objects of similar luminosity. Because high
fidelity individual Herschel SEDs cannot be obtained for the typical
UV-bright galaxy from blank field surveys, we here describe a project
to obtain full PACS/SPIRE SEDs for a sample of 16 strongly lensed
UV-bright objects, found behind massive lensing clusters as well as
behind individual lensing SDSS galaxies.

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Proposal ID: GT1_jmcastro_1
Title: "A direct probe into the Epoch of Reionisation: Herschel's first
look at high z GRB host, the case for GRB 050904"
Principal Investigator: José María Castro Cerón
Time: 12.0 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
The reionisation of the universe between redshifts 6 and 30 is the one
fundamental astrophysical event since the Big Bang. The role of galaxies
in this process is still not properly understood. Several star forming
galaxies at z ~ 6 have been identified in recent deep, narrow field surveys,
but the expensive observations along with cosmic variance and contamination
make it difficult to assess their contribution to reionisation, or to
significantly increase the sample. By virtue of being extremely luminous
end states in the evolution of massive stars, gamma ray bursts (GRBs)
are a critically important tracer of star formation out to the highest
redshifts. It has now been demonstrated that GRBs exist at z>6,
and there are already published HST and Spitzer observations of the host
galaxy of GRB050904 at z=6.3. Spectroscopic confirmation, including
detailed information on the host ISM, is available for this burst.

Here we propose to observe the host galaxy of GRB 050904 with Herschel
PACS and SPIRE to very deep limits. We aim to extend our knowledge of
this galaxy to the far-infrared and submillimetre wavelengths. This will
allow us to build realistic models, since those windows are unexplored
to date, and to describe the physical properties of a high z GRB host galaxy,
thus directly probing reionisation and the role high z galaxies in the process.
Further we will test whether the M - Z and L - Z relations evolve beyond
the current redshift limits.

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Proposal ID: GT1_mharwit_2
Title: "The Spectrum of IRAS 08339+6517 and its Physical Implications"
Principal Investigator: Martin Harwit
Time: 2.4 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
The Spectrum of IRAS 08339+6517 and its Physical
Implications

IRAS 08339+6517 is a highly compact starburst galaxy,
whose remarkable nature was first recognized at optical
wavelengths by Margon et al., in 1988 [1].  They noted its
strong, narrow emission lines in H$\alpha$, H$\beta$, [OIII],
[OII], [OI], [NII], [SII] and [CIV], and found it position to
coincide with that of a previously-unidentified IRAS source,
whose flux at 60 and 100$\mu$m, respectively was 5.9 and
6.5 Jy. The X-ray luminosity of the source is $\sim 1.0\times 10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$, suggesting that it may be a hybrid AGN
/starburst.  Currently no far-infrared spectrum of this highly
interesting nearby source exists, presumably because prior to
Herschel no telescope was sufficiently powerful to provide a
spectrum.  The aim of this proposal is two-fold:  (i) to obtain
an analysis of the physical conditions --- temperature and
density --- in the atomic and ionic and molecular
constituents of this galaxy's gaseous phases; the abundance
of their primary elements O, C, and N; while also probing the
far-infrared dust continuum and dust contents of the galaxy
at longer wavelengths than IRAS provided; and (ii) to forge, as
further explained, an intermediate chemical and
thermodynamic link between galaxies in the nearby and
distant universe.
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Proposal ID: GT1_ivaltcha_1
Title: "Deep SPIRE FTS follow-up of H-ATLAS lensed sub-mm galaxies"
Principal Investigator: Ivan Valtchanov
Time: 12.0 hours
Category: GT1
Summary:
One of the major discoveries in the IR and sub-mm wavelengths are the
so-called sub-mm galaxies (SMGs). These high-redshift, optically obscured,
star-forming galaxies account for more than half of the far-infrared
background and their star-formation rates are orders of magnitudes
higher than most galaxies in the local Universe. SMGs are considered
the precursors of today's most massive elliptical or bulge galaxies
and are amongst the most difficult obstacles for models of galaxy
formation and evolution. They may provide clues for understanding
the formation and evolution of galaxies in the very early Universe
- one of the most challenging and important topics in astrophysics.
Wide area surveys, like the Herschel Astrophysical Teraherz Large
Area Survey (H-ATLAS) - the largest Herschel Open Time Key Programme,
will detect a significant number of SMGs at z>2.

We propose SPIRE Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS) follow-up of the first
two H-ATLAS SMG identified during the Herschel Science Demonstration Phase.
Both targets HATLAS 81 and HATLAS 130 are lensed by foreground galaxies and
observations at CSO/Zspec and GBT/Zpectrometer secured their spectroscopic
redshifts at 3.04 and 2.625 respectively, based on CO lines.

The proposed SPIRE FTS observations will result in the deepest spectra of
SMGs in 197-670 microns band (corresponding to ~50-170 microns rest-frame),
achieving line sensitivity of 10^{-17} W/m2 (5-sigma) and continuum at
signal-to-noise greater than 4. This will enable us to constrain the physical
conditions of the ISM using a combination of the the atomic cooling lines,
the total IR luminosity, and the CO spectral-line energy distribution
obtained from radio-mm ground-based observations. In order to better
constrain the blue wing of the SED peak we also add short PACS mini-maps around
each source, going down to 10 and 15 mJy (5-sigma) at 100 and 160 microns.

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